An Annotated Bibliography of Computer Assisted Learning

Ifan Shepherd (1992) Published by the CTI Centre for Geography, Geology and Meteorology, Leicester


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

 

Archer, J. C. and Lavin, S.

(1981) Computer assisted instruction in geography. Geographical Perspectives 47: 16-29.

Following an introductory discussion of the reasons why computer assisted instruction has largely failed to penetrate the geography classroom in the USA , the authors elaborate on the uses made of the computer in support of geography courses at Dartmouth College. By way of illustration they describe seven applications developed in the college"s department of geography over the previous decade, including simulations of rice growing in Asia, land use competition in urban areas, and computer-based mapping. They conclude with some general ideas on the educational use of computers in geography teaching.
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Batty, M., Bracken, I., Guy, C., and Spooner, R.

(1985) Teaching spatial modelling using interacting computers and interactive computer graphics. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 9(1): 25-36.

Describes the role of computer graphics in an undergraduate teaching project, in which students acquire programming skills through spatial modelling. A linked system of minicomputer and micros is used to provide students with powerful modelling and graphical display facilities. These enable the students to develop and deepen their insights when attempting to solve spatial location problems.

Baumann, P. R.

(1970) Computer assisted instruction programs in geography: five climate programs. Publications in Geography, No.1. Oneonta, New York: Department of Geography, State University of New York.

Provides a listing and description of five interactive FORTRAN programs for teaching about climate. The programs all conform to the programmed learning style typical of computer assisted instruction (CAI).
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Baumann, P. R.

(1972) Land Use Game (LUG): a CAI unit on land use decision making process in a tropical subsistence society. In: Fielding, G. J. and Rumage, K. W. (eds.) Computerized Instruction in Undergraduate Geography, pp. 41-50. AAG Commission on College Geography, Technical Paper No. 6. Washington, DC: Association of American Geographers.

Describes an interactive, computer-based game which aims to help students understand the decision making process in tropical subsistence societies, and particularly the role of risk. The game is played on an annual cycle, with student players deciding where to plant, how much land to plant, and what crops to sow. Judgement are based on the experience of previous seasons" decisions. The instructor is expected to set goals for the exercise, but the game is open-ended insofar as there is no "winning" position to be achieved. Worksheets for student use are provided.
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Baumann, P. R.

(1975) A computer-based instructional system on maps. Journal of Geography 74(3): 159-166.

Describes an instructional system involving computer mapping. Following lectures on mapping, students use the computer to create their own maps. This, claims the author, gives them more time to think about the decision making processes involved in constructing effective maps. The program described has similar functionality to SYMAP, but there is considerable emphasis on the development of computer-readable data files for various courses. The author describes how student use of the software in practical sessions is interwoven into a programme of lectures.
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Baumann, P. R.

(1976) SORG: a computerized model for teaching spatial organization. Professional Geographer 28(1): 62-66.

Describes the Simulation of Retail Gravitation (SORG) program which implements Huff"s model of spatial interaction. This was designed to support an urban geography course to help students explore various concepts, including human spatial behaviour, location allocation, and spatial interaction. The program generates two maps: a population distribution surface based on a proximal algorithm, and probability contours of consumers shopping at designated central places. Students specify the location of the central places, together with a measure of their attraction. The author describes how the program may be used by students as a surrogate scientific laboratory.
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Bell, T. L., Frankland, P. L., and Rushton, G.

(1972) Some principles of spatial competition in economic geography. In: Fielding, G. J. and Rumage, K. W. (eds.) Computerized Instruction in Undergraduate Geography, pp. 11-24. AAG Commission on College Geography, Technical Paper No. 6. Washington, DC: Association of American Geographers.

Describes five computer-based instructional exercises centred on concepts of spatial competition between entrepreneurs. Rather than pitting the student against the computer, students are challenged to play against one another in attempting to achieve an optimal location. The computer program evaluates the students" decisions, producing output that can be used to improved choice of location. The operation of the program is described, and an evaluation of its use is presented.
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Bohland, J. and Libbee, M.

(1977) Instructional computing in geography: current status and future prospects. Professional Geographer 29(4): 385-393.

After commenting on the (then) current lack of interest in computer-based instruction, the authors address three issues: attitudes towards computer use in geography teaching; problems in the implementation of computer-based instruction; and an evaluation of the future of this form of instruction. Each theme is examined in the light of a survey of 155 US college departments offering geography courses.
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Burt, T. P. and Butcher, D. P.

(1986) Stimulation from simulation ? A teaching model of hillslope hydrology for use on microcomputers. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 10(1): 23-39.

The design and use of a simple computer model which simulates aspects of hillslope hydrology is described in a teaching context. The model, which is based on a simple but realistic theory, allows students to simulate the hydrological response of real hillslopes. It may be used in several ways, and at different levels, and can be used in conjunction with other teaching methods.
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Carbonell, J. R.

(1969) On man-computer interaction: a model and some related issues. IEEE Transactions on Systems Science and Cybernetics 5(1): 16-26.

Outlines an artificial intelligence approach to teaching factual aspects of the geography of Latin America. Specifically, it describes a natural language interface which permits students to engage in a rudimentary form of Socratic dialogue with the computer. An experimental program, SCHOLAR, is described which uses this interface, and examples of actual dialogue with students are presented.
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Carbonell, J. R.

(1970) AI in CAI: an artificial intelligence approach to computer-assisted instruction. IEEE Transactions on Man-Machine Systems 11(4): 190-202.

Discusses the AI techniques which make it possible to incorporate meaningful tutorial dialogues in computer assisted instruction programs. Describes the SCHOLAR program, which incorporates an information network of facts, concepts and procedures, which enables it to carry on a mixed initiative dialogue between student and computer, handling questions and answers from both sides. Illustrates the ideas with a lesson on the geography of South America.
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Cerveny, R. S. and Balling, R. C.

(1984) CONSTABLE: a simple one-dimensional climate model for climatologists in geography. Professional Geographer 36: 188-196.

Describes a one-dimensional global climate model, which was constructed from the basic energy-balance equation for the earth-atmosphere system and the planetary boundary layer equations of motion. Describes how it can be used to simulate present conditions, and suggests experiments that can be carried out involving alternative climatic states.
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Chalmers, L. and Wall, G.

(1992) Local economic impact modelling; TIEBOUT, Tourism and training. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 16(1): 61-69.

Describes the development of a computer-based model which is used to assess different development options in Canadian National Parks, and thereby operates as a training tool for Park managers and decision makers. The paper documents the development of the TIEBOUT program which implements the model, and discusses its use with undergraduate students to help set up and execute various scenarios for planning national parks. Student and teacher evaluations of its classroom use are presented.
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Chang, K-T.

(1974) An instructional computer program on statistical class intervals. The Canadian Cartographer 11(1): 69-77.

Discusses the problem of classifying numerical data, particularly for use in the production of classed choropleth maps. Describes a BASIC program which permits the user to derive class limits based on 8 differerent classification methods. Discusses the use of this program with undergraduate cartography students, and outlines the benefits of using support software of this kind over conventional teaching methods.
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Churchill, R. R. and Frankland, P.

(1980) Teaching cartographic concepts using interactive computer mapping programs. Journal of Geography 79: 213-217.

Reports the experience of running an undergraduate course which uses interactive mapping software to teach students spatial concepts and the problems involved in creating maps. Argues by means of examples that the chief benefit of the computer is that it enables students to discover problems relating to map construction through a process of interactive experimentation.
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Clark, J. R.

(1978) An APL based system for teaching computer cartography. Proceedings of the American Congress on Surveying and Mapping pp. 91-94.

Argues that some aspects of computer cartography are better taught through students developing their own programs rather than merely using "canned" (i.e. packaged) programs. Describes the experience of several groups of students on a course devised on the basis of this philosophy.
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Cole, J. P.

(1975) Situations in Human Geography: a Practical Approach. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

One of the first mainstream geography textbooks to include computer-based exercises to complement its substantive material. Includes code (in FORTRAN and FOCAL) of exercises on world economic development, population change and migration, farming, and spatial marketing. The program styles include straight calculation to interactive gaming.
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Cole, J. P. and Mather, P. M.

(1979) The use of minicomputers in geography teaching: some prognostications. Geoforum 10: 235-241.

Considers the effects of wide availability of microcomputers (sic) on geography teaching and on the content of geography syllabuses in higher education. Suggests that the most likely features to affect teaching methods are simulation, visual display and computer aided instruction, and that there will be greater emphasis on skills training. Four applications are described, and recommendations are offered for future developments.
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Collins, A. and Adams, M. J.

(1977) Comparison of two teaching strategies in computer-assisted instruction. Contemporay Educational Psychology 2(2): 133-148.

Three experiments are reported on the use of the SCHOLAR system to teach geography to high-school students. Discusses the results of comparing tutorial mode CAI with programmed instruction. Finds that the major factor affecting students" learning is the strategy used by teachers to review material in greater depth on a second pass. Concludes with a discussion of the advantages of CAI for implementing and evaluating different teaching strategies.
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Collins, A., Adams, M. J. A. and Pew, R. W.

(1978) Effectiveness of an interactive map display in tutoring geography. Journal of Educational Psychology 70(1): 1-7.

Evaluates the teaching effectiveness of the SCHOLAR computer assisted instruction system, which is able to engage in natural language dialogue with students. A formal comparison is made between student use of the interactive map display of Map-SCHOLAR, a static labelled map, and a labelled map, and it is concluded that the SCHOLAR approach is superior in teaching the place geography of Latin America.
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Collins, A., Warnock, E. H. and Passafiume, J. J.

(1975) Analysis and synthesis of tutorial dialogues. In: Bower, G. H. (ed.) The Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances in Research and Theory, pp.49-87, New York: Academic Press.

Discusses the implementation of tutorial dialogues in the SCHOLAR system for computer assisted instruction. Compares human and computer dialogues, and techniques for synthesising the former. Provides examples from a computer-based tutorial on the geography of Latin America.
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Cowen, D. J. and Lovingood, P. E.

(1972) The use of computers in geographic instruction as a means of stimulating interest in statistical methods. Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computers in the Undergraduate Curriculum, pp. 295-297.

Several computer-based exercises in data gathering, analysis and mapping are described. These were devised to encourage a greater understanding of statistical methods by geography undergraduates.
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Dawson, J. A. and Unwin, D. J.

(1984) The integration of microcomputers into British geography. Area 16: 323-329.

Provides a snapshot of microcomputer use in British geography departments in 1983, and a comparison with previous surveys. Indicates that wide disparities exist in the level of departmental commitment to computer use in teaching, and argues that future progress in this area will be most hampered by lack of suitable software and "liveware".
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Degani, A., Lewis, L. A. and Downing, B. B.

(1979) Interactive computer simulation of the spatial process of soil erosion. Professional Geographer 31(2): 184-190.

Describes the development of SOILCART, an interactive program for the spatial assessment of an area"s potential soil loss. The soil loss model is introduced, the simulation program described, and teaching exercises discussed. Various aspects of the program (e.g. its conversational style, its graphical output, and an introductory test) were designed specifically with instructional use in mind. Various student uses of the model are described.
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Dethlefsen, E. and Moody, C.

(1982) Simulating neighbourhood segregation. Byte 7(7): 178-206.

Outlines a computer model for simulating the development of residential segregation in multi-racial communities, which can be used for teaching aspects of social geography. The model, which is based on Schelling"s ideas, uses two ethnically distinct groups of households, and a starting distribution (chosen by the student) that is either "planned", "integrated" or "random". From this, the program generates an integration index showing the proportion of dissimilar nighbours surrounding the average household, and a crude distribution map showing the geographical arrangement of the two types of household after the model has run its course. A complete listing of the BASIC program is provided.
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Duncan, C.

(1990) Meteorology, teaching and technology. Geography 76(1): 27-35.

Explores the impact that computer technology has had on the teaching of meteorology. It describes the use of five technologies: real-time measurement; data analysis (especially with spreadsheets); satellite receivers; radio facsimile; and computer-assisted learning. Concerning the latter, the author describes three ways of using the computer for teaching aspects of meteorology: the instructional; the exploratory; and by means of simulation. Overall, the paper suggests ways in which computers can be used both to DO meteorology as well as to TEACH meteorology.
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Dunn, R.

(1989) Building regression models: the importance of graphics. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 13: 15-30.

Argues that a graphically-oriented approach to the teaching of simple and multiple regression has major educational advantages. In particular, it suggests that the use of graphical methods lowers student resistance to numerical methods, and that student interpretation of graphical displays is a powerful and necessary approach to model building. Illustrates the argument with a number of worked examples, including both "test" data and real data on population growth in the USA. Demonstrates that the process of building a regression model by students requires the use of iterative and interactive experimentation, for which the speed and power of modern computers is ideally suited.
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Ellinger, R. S. and Frankland, P.

(1976) Computer-assisted and lecture instruction: a comparative experiment. Journal of Geography 75(2): 109-120.

Reports the findings of a comparative evaluation of lecturing and computer assisted instruction on the concept of spatial competition. By means of pre-tests and post-tests, an attempt was made to compare both the educational effectiveness and costs of the two methods. Concludes that this particular evaluation fails to support definite conclusions about which is the more attractive method educationally, although the lecture scores in purely cost terms.
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Fielding, G. J.

(1969) The town that wanted a freeway: a CAI unit examining the impress of the political process on spatial distributions. In Huke R. E., Fielding, G. J., and Rumage, K. W. (eds.) Computer Instruction in Geography pp. 79-113. AAG Commission on College Geography, Technical Paper No. 2. Washington DC: Association of American Geographers.

Describes a self-paced human geography course, in which several teaching approaches are managed by the computer. The principles adopted in the design of one of the 20 CAI units developed to help teach theoretical and applied aspects of human geography are discussed. Considers the techniques involved in writing the units in the Course Author Language (CAL). Program listings in this language (CAL) are included.
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Fielding, G. J. and Rumage, K. W. (eds.)

(1972) Computerized Instruction in Undergraduate Geography. AAG Commission on College Geography, Technical Paper No. 6. Washington, DC: Association of American Geographers.

Discusses the role of computer assisted instruction (CAI) in college geography, and reports experiments in the development of a number of CAI units funded by the AAG Commission on College Geography"s Panel on CAI. Among the units described are CAI programs on the heat-moisture balance and distance and direction, and several games, including those designed to teach spatial competition in economic geography, land use decision making processes in a tropical subsistence society, and a simulation of port growth. (See individual entries for Bell et al. 1972; Porter et al. 1972; Baumann 1972; Howard 1972; and Jordan 1972.
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Fisher, P. F.

(1989) Geographical information systems software for teaching. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 13(1): 69-80.

Presents a comparative review of 11 low-cost geographical information systems (GIS) available for use on PCs running MS-DOS. The systems are grouped into three cost bands for discussion, and the hardware required to run them is identified. The GIS functions thought necessary for use in geography teaching is outlined, and the paper concludes with an indication of the variety of options available for teaching with GIS. An appendix lists the details of the systems described in the paper.
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Flood-Page, C.

(1982) Why worry? Journal of Geography in Higher Education 6(2): 177-179.*

A brief but trenchant piece which argues that computer technology, like other technologies before it, will make only a marginal impact on teaching practices in geography.
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Forer, P. (ed.)

(1979) Geography, simulation and the computer in schools. New Zealand Geography Society (Canterbury Branch) Publication No. 5.

A collection of papers aimed at alerting teachers to the potential of microcomputers in teaching geography. Discusses simulation, games, fieldwork, calculations, teaching and administration, and ends with a case study of computer use in the classroom.
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Forer, P. C.

(1987)a Encouraging failure ? Lessons from an educational medium. New Zealand Journal of Geography 84: 23-28.

Considers the future of educational technology in geography, particularly in New Zealand. Reviews a number of trends in the application of computers to geography teaching in the 1980s, and particularly in the potential of generic software, computer communications, interactive video and optical disks. Reflects on the conditions necessary for successful use of educational computing in geography, and sets out an agenda for future use in teaching the subject.
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Forer, P. C.

(1987)b Symbiotic software: development and usage issues on stand-alone and networked systems. In: Kent, W. A. and Lewis, R., (eds.) Computer Assisted Learning in the Humanities and Social Sciences. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Discusses the advantages of using general-purpose software as tools for computer-based learning in geography. Suggests that educational software must be both symbiotic and applicable to a broad spectrum of applications. Illustrates these ideas with reference to STATSMAP, a program for interactive analysis of spatial data, and RETAIL, a program that can be used by several students simultaneously on different machines to demonstrate the nature of retail competition in space.
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Forer, P. C.

(1987)c Video and data in geography: an initial analysis of the Domesday Project in the United Kingdom . New Zealand Journal of Geography, (April): 19-23.

Provides an initial assessment of the BBC Domesday System, from a New Zealand perspective. Identifies the characteristics which make the system educationally valuable, but questions whether full use might be made of the system given the absence of accompanying educational materials.
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Fox, P. and Tapsfield, A. (eds.)

(1986) The Role and Value of New Technology in Geography. London: Council for Educational Technology.

Provides an overview of the relationship between new technology (and particularly the computer) and geography teaching. It explores what the new technology can do to assist the teaching of existing skills in the geography curriculum (e.g. literacy, numeracy and graphicacy), and to develop new types of skills (e.g. information skills and decision making). It concludes with a series of policy recommendations for various people working in the educational system.
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Freeman, D.

(1990) Multimedia learning: the classroom experience. Computers in Education 15(1-3): 189-194.

Reports on classroom use of the Domesday System, and identifies both advantages and disadvantages in its educational role, including its mapping facilities. Discusses the levels of interactivity represented by the system, and offers a classification of the various ways in which the system can be used by teachers and students.
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Gardiner, V.

(1986) Literature for teaching computer assisted cartography to geographers. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 10(1): 71-77.

A review of the current literature that can be used to support undergraduate courses in computer assisted cartography. The review considers material under four headings: general reviews of the field; concepts and techniques; practical/programming techniques; and applications. The author concludes that current printed resources do not serve the student of computer assisted cartography particularly well.
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Gardiner, V. and Unwin, D. J.

(1986) Computers and the field class. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 10(2): 169-179.

The authors argue that using computers in field classes makes it possible to do educationally desirable things which are either difficult or impossible without them. In particular, they allow students to have a greater sense of involvement in projects and a greater sense of achievement subsequently. These ideas are illustrated by means of two exercises, and practical issues are discussed.
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Goddard, J. B.

(1975) The use of computers in teaching human geography at university level. In: Hooper, R. and Toye, I. (eds.) Computer Assisted Learning: Some Case Studies. London: Council for Educational Technology.

Provides a brief discussion of the emerging educational and technological environments of human geography teaching in the UK. Reviews several applications of computers in the spatial analysis courses at the London School of Economics. Discusses the problems involved in using limited (batch processing) facilities, and the adaptation of programs originally developed for research purposes.
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Goodyear, P.

(1987) A toolkit approach to computer-aided systems modelling. In: Lewis, R. and Tagg, E. D. (eds.) Trends in Computer Assisted Education, pp. 88-96. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.

Reviews the range of software resources available for computer-aided modelling, classifying them in terms of the degree of user control and the incidental learning cost. Describes a set of LOGO procedures that can be used in courses on environmental systems modelling.
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Gould, P.

(1981) Beginning geography: a human and technical perspective. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 5(1): 45-51.

Describes an introductory first course in human geography, aimed at undergraduates who have not yet opted for geography as a main subject of study. The course is essentially built around five computer projects which are interspersed with a sequence of lectures. It is argued that every student should use, and question the role of, computers, and that this is best done in the context of a course that considers problems of deep human concern.
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Green, N. P. A.

(1987) Teach yourself geographical information systems. The design, creation and use of demonstrators and tutors. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems 1(3): 279-290.

Outlines the benefits of using computer-based training in GIS. It then discusses the design objectives and constraints of a GIS demonstrator, and the structure and form of two working prototypes (ARCDEMO and ECDEMO) are described. Both demonstrators are based on the ARC/INFO vector-based GIS. Their usage is discussed and evaluated. This leads into a discussion of the desiderata for a more fully-fledged GIS tutor.
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Griffith, D. A.

(1987) Teaching spatial autocorrelation by simulation. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 11(2): 143-153.

A brief discussion of the role of simulation gaming in geography teaching precedes a simulation experiment developed to teach the often difficult topic of spatial autocorrelation. The nature of the game, which is fully interactive, is described, and an outline is provided of the degree of preparatory teaching felt to be necessary before students proceed to use the game. A complete listing of the program (in BASIC) is provided, together with examples of output from various student experiments. Finally, the experience of students working with the program is reported.
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Griffith, D. A.

(1992) Teaching statistics to geographers using Minitab. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 16(1): 45-60*

Describes how Minitab, the widely used program for statistical analysis, may be used to develop programs for spatial statistics. Indicates how this can help students better understand both the concepts and limitations of a range of spatial statistics. Outlines three categories of such statistics (centrographic measures, point pattern statistics, and measures of autocorrelation), and presents examples of Minitab code for several of the statistics described.
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Groop, R., Dodge, S. L. and Manson, G.

(1985) Microcomputer modules for undergraduate geography. Journal of Geography, 84(4): 161-164.

Describes a funded project at Michigan State University to develop software for computer assisted instruction in geography. Seven modules produced by the project are described, and student reaction to their use is reported. Concludes with cautionary advice on the likely (low) adoption of the outcome of such projects, and on the high inputs of time and resources which educational software development can require.
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Grummitt, S. J.

(1980) The computer in the classroom - some advantages of computer assisted learning (CAL) for secondary school geography. Classroom Geographer (January 13-17).

Summarises research into CAL compared with conventional methods of instruction, and undertakes a formal evaluation of three methods of teaching spatial diffusion: lecturing, manual simulation and computer simulation. Comparison of results from pre-test, post-test and delayed post-test revelaed that the use of the computer increased student understanding, particularly of processes, though retention levels appeared to be the same for all three methods.
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Haines-Young, R. H.

(1983) Nutrient cycling and problem solving: a simple teaching model. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 7(2): 125-139.

Describes a compartment model to assist in the teaching of nutrient cycling in ecosystems. The model was implemented as a computer program, which was explored by small groups of students. Various exercises are described, including experimenting with various parameter values, comparing the model outputs with those reported in the literature, and critically evaluating and modifying the model.
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Hall, D., Kent., A. and Wiegand, P.

(1982) Geography teaching and computers. Teaching Geography 7(3): 136-139.

Reviews the development of computer-based geography teaching in the United Kingdom in terms of "paleotechnic" and "neotechnic" eras. Outlines the results of a survey of 735 secondary schools. Only a small number of committed teachers were using computers in their teaching, and few had evaluated the results of their experimentation. Concludes with details of a research programme aimed at discovering the potential and realities of CAL in geography lessons.
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Hall, D., Kent, A. and Wiegand, P.

(1985) Computer assisted learning in geography: the state of the art. Teaching Geography 10(2): 73-6.

Reviews the development of computer assisted learning in schools geography, with particular emphasis on the contributions of the Microelectronics in Education Programme. Reports the findings of a questionnaire survey of heads of geography in 16 selected local education authorities.
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Hantula, J.

(1977) CONCEN: a computer game for middle school and high school students. Journal of Geography (March): 91-94.

Describes a simple computer-based game in which students have to answer questions and interpret graphed data. As correct answers are given, elements of a pre-stored picture (on an African theme) are revealed, and the student is invited to guess what the picture shows.
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Harrington, J. A., et al.

(1988) Student development of educational software: spin-offs from classroom use of DIAS. Journal of Geography 87(5): 169-173.

Describes a microcomputer package (DIAS) developed for teaching image processing techniques to undergraduate students. It describes how the core software was developed by staff, and how students were challenged to write additional software modules as projects in their remote sensing course. A similar approach was adopted with a GIS program (Grassroots-GIS). It is argued that this approach not only increases student understanding of the principles of image processing, but also greatly increases their sense of accomplishment in the face of increasing amounts of packaged software.
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Hepner, G. F.

(1985) Considerations in the development of a computer mapping laboratory. Journal of Geography 84(2): 64-67.

Describes how geography departments might establish an effectively equipped laboratory to support the teaching of computer-based mapping and geography. Offers advice on the selection of software and hardware, and outlines some of the management issues that are involved in successful operation of a laboratory.
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Howard, P. O.

(1972) PORTS: A computer assisted instruction unit simulating port growth. In: Fielding, G. J. and Rumage, K. W. (eds.) Computerized Instruction in Undergraduate Geography, pp. 51-58. AAG Commission on College Geography, Technical Paper No. 6. Washington, DC: Association of American Geographers.

Describes a computer program which is used to simulate the spatial evolution of a port. The student player creates an initial configuration of rivers and mountains on a gameboard, and the program calculates the likely emergence of ports in the study area, based on notions of relative locational advantage. Suggestions are provided as to how the computer simulation is best integrated into a teaching scheme.
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Hughes, A.

(1976) An application of computer cartography in the teaching of cartography. The Canadian Cartographer 13(2): 139-157.

Discusses the use of the SYMAP mapping program in a course designed to teach students about the critical role of human choice in the design and production of isopleth maps. The author illustrates how mapping software can be used in repeated runs by students to acquire graphic confirmation of the effects of their decisions.
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Hughes, A.

(1979) SYMAP as an aid to teaching thematic cartography. Harvard Library of Computer Graphics, 1979 Mapping Collection 5: 63-75.

Describes and evaluates the use made of SYMAP in teaching cartography to geography undergraduates. The aim is to focus student attention on the key decisions involved in the map-making process, to encourage them to examine the consequences of their decisions, and to get them to discuss the implications of cartographic decision making for the map-maker and map-user. Concludes with a discussion of the problems involved in adopting a computer-aided approach to cartography teaching.
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Huke, R. E.

(1969) Climate types: recognition and classification. In: Huke R. E., Fielding, G. J., and Rumage, K. W. (eds.) Computer Instruction in Geography, pp. 33-54. AAG Commission on College Geography, Technical Paper No. 2. Washington DC: Association of American Geographers.

Describes a CAI unit (CLIMAT) developed to help teach the principles of climatic classification at an introductory level to physical geography students. The objectives of the unit and its place in the geography curriculum are discussed, and the nature of dialogue between the program and the student is described. BASIC program listings are included.
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Huke, R. E., Fielding, G. J. and Rumage, K. W. (eds.)

(1969) Computer Assisted Instruction in Geography. AAG Commission on College Geography, Technical Paper No. 2. Washington DC: Association of American Geographers.

Discusses the role of the computer as an instructor, describing the techniques of computer assisted instruction (or CAI). Individual chapters provide case studies of the application of CAI in geography, including the teaching of: map projections and scale, climatic types, the energy budget, the siting of an urban freeway, and the measurement of spatial association. Further chapters describe the use of software for agricultural land use modelling, and the use of an analogue computer for studying the urban demographic potential. (See individual entries for: Jordan 1969; Huke 1969; Fielding 1969; Yeates and Nicholson 1969; Rushton 1969; and Nunley, Sabol and Youngmann 1969).
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Hultquist, N. B.

(1972) Introducing undergraduate geographers to quantitative analysis through a regionalization framework. Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computers in the Undergraduate Curriculum, pp. 299-303. Publ ?? *

Describes an experimental undergraduate course in spatial analysis at the Georgia State University. Students were encouraged to run packaged programs and interpret the results in order to help them better interpret the quantitative material appearing in the geographical literature.
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Jensen, J. R.

(1983) Educational image processing: an overview. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 49(8): 1151-1158.

Begins with a discussion of the benefits to students of carrying out digital image processing of remotely sensed data. Continues with a review of the fundamental concepts which it is felt should be mastered in remote sensing courses. Concludes with an outline of the major types of image processing system appropriate for educational use.
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Joffe, B. A. and Wright, W.

(1989) SimCity: thematic mapping + city management simulation = an entertaining, interactive gaming tool. GIS/LIS "89 Proceedings, Vol. 2: 591-600. Orlando, Florida.

Describes the development and educational potential of a gaming simulation targeted at the recreational market. The computer program permits users to build up a city map on screen, consisting of various land uses and transport systems, and then project its development into the future. The user can view summary maps as the city develops and the program provides an assessment of the effectiveness of the resulting development. Students are able to experiment with alternative planning scenarios, although they are unable to control or modify the operation of the program"s growth model.
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Jordan, F.

(1969) Computer assisted instruction (CAI) units on map projections and the concept of scale. In: Huke R. E., Fielding, G. J., and Rumage, K. W. (eds.) Computer Instruction in Geography, pp. 9-32. AAG Commission on College Geography, Technical Paper No. 2. Washington DC: Association of American Geographers.

Describes two CAI units developed to help teach the principles of map projections and map scale to first year physical geography students. The design of these units is discussed, and the considerable length of time to develop and test them is highlighted. English-like transcripts of the original BASIC programs are included.
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Jordan, F.

(1972) A computer assisted instruction exercise on distance and direction. In: Fielding, G. J. and Rumage, K. W. (eds.) Computerized Instruction in Undergraduate Geography pp. 59-76. AAG Commission on College Geography, Technical Paper No. 6. Washington, DC: Association of American Geographers.

Presents a computer-based exercise which attempts to encourage students to think about the role of distance in human geography. More specifically, students are presented with absenteeism information for a hypothetical factory, and by examining distance graphs of workers" location from their workplace are challenged to develop geographical hypotheses that might explain this pattern. Students work partly with a (paper) worksheet and partly with a tutorial style program.
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Kay, D., Kay, D. and McDonald, A.

(1982) Teaching catchment hydrology: two dynamic models for classroom use. Teaching Geography 7(3): 118-124.

Discusses the educational role of dynamic models in geography teaching, and hydrological models in particular. Argues that, for many geography students, it may be more appropriate to begin by experimenting with a hardware model, and then progress to using a more abstract computer simulation model. An inexpensive hardware model which simulates the land phase of the hydrological model is described and two computer programs are then presented which illustrate how stream discharge may be simulated. The complementary use of these two types of model in the classroom is discussed.

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Kent, A. (ed.)

(1983) Geography Teaching and the Micro. York, England: Longman.

A collection of papers originally delivered at a conference on computer assisted learning in geography. Four of these papers discuss the development of educational software for geography, three report on investigations into the use of CAL in the classroom, and one reviews the varied reasons why CAL uptake in geography is still at a relatively low level.
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Kent, A., Philips, A. and Roberts, M. (eds.)

(1989) Domesday in action. London: University of London, Institute of Education.

Provides 11 detailed case studies of classroom use of the Domesday System. Although these are drawn from schools and include disciplines other than geography, the range of uses made of the system, and the themes explored, provide useful material for those using (or intending to use) the system in higher education.
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Kirkby, M. and Naden, P.

(1988) The use of simulation models in teaching geomorphology and hydrology. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 12(1): 31-49.

A discussion of how students can learn about the physical environment through using computer simulation models. The authors focus on three stages of student activity: exploration; experiment; and calibration. Two models from physical geography (one on catchment hydrology and one on hillslope evolution) illustrate how various types of project work can be developed, including the fitting of models to measured data, and the critical evaluation of model parameter values.
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Kirkby, M. J., Naden, P. S., Burt, T. P. and Butcher, D. P.

(1987) Computer Simulation in Physical Geography. Chichester, England: Wiley

Introduces the role of computer-based modelling in the study of the physical environment. The first part of the book describes several alternative modelling styles (black box, process, mass/energy balance, and stochastic), each being illustrated with examples of BASIC programs developed for various aspects of physical geography. The second part outlines an approach by means of which computer models may be developed. Although not explicitly educational, the book is levelled at undergraduates involved in simulation and modelling in geography.
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Lahey, J. F. and LaValle, P. D.

(1969) An approach to the presentation of the energy budget concept in an introductory physical geography course. In: Huke R. E., Fielding, G. J., and Rumage, K. W. (eds.) Computer Instruction in Geography, pp. 55-78. AAG Commission on College Geography, Technical Paper No. 2. Washington DC: Association of American Geographers.

Describes the development of three CAI units to help teach the principles of the energy-budget concept in the earth-atmosphere system. The units are all written in the TUTOR language, and are delivered by PLATO, a computer-based instructional system developed at the University of Illinois. The design of the three units is outlined, and the advantages and disadvantages of the TUTOR approach to building instructional units is discussed. Part of a student exercise guide is provided.
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Laurillard, D.

(1984) A note on an interactive video-disc in physical geography. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 8(1): 60-61.

An American video-disc on topics in physical geography is described. The disc contains both filmed sequences and a slide bank, and may be used alone, or through the control of a microcomputer. An outline is provided of its utility as a visual in classroom teaching.
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Lee, M. P. and Soper, J. B.

(1987) Using spreadsheets to teach statistics in geography. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 11(1): 27-33.

The general-purpose spreadsheet program is considered as a tool for teaching statistical methods to geography students in order to provide an insight into the calculation process. The programming of the chi-square test in Lotus 1-2-3 is used as a worked example of this approach.
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Lewis, L. T.

(1979) All-purpose learning games for computer-assisted instruction. Journal of Geography 78(6): 237-244.

Describes a suite of computer programs designed to blend entertainment with learning. Specifically, programs have been developed that present students with drill-and-practice questions on geography which have been dressed up in the form of a game. Progress in the game is conditional upon answering questions correctly. It is claimed that this format provides students with an incentive to learn.
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Maguire, D. J.

(1989) The Domesday interactive video-disc system in geography teaching. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 13(1): 55-68.

Begins with an overview of the BBC Domesday System, including a summary of data content and functionality. Proceeds to discuss the system"s educational potential, illustrating this theme with two teaching case studies: cartography; and the distribution and abundance of British vegetation. Concludes with a comment on the need for additional support materials to encourage and enhance its use in the classroom.
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Maguire, D. J.

(1989) Computers in Geography. London: Longman

This text is not directly concerned with the use of computers as an aid to teaching geography. Nevertheless, it does describe such uses in the opening chapter, and in the 11 subsequent chapters provides numerous examples of possible educational uses. These include data logging on field-courses; data analysis and mapping in practical work; simulation and modelling in substantive courses; and word processing for project preparation. The book is well illustrated, and each chapter provides a list of further reading.
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Mather, P. M.

(1989) Image processing on small computers. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 13(1): 81-83.

Provides a brief review of a number of low cost, PC-based image processing programs suitable for use in undergraduate geography courses. Points to a fuller discussion of these systems in a report of two conferences on image processing held in the UK in 1987.
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McCormick, S. and Bratt, P.

(1988) Some issues related to the design and development of an interactive video disc. Computer Education 12(1): 257-260.

Describes the Ecodisc interactive video-disc, which contains multimedia information on a British nature reserve, and which provide students with a rich simulation environment for undertaking studies in natural science and geography. Outlines five functionalities which the disc brings to an educational context: an interaction medium; a visual organiser; a randomiser of visual information; a tool for manipulating and displaying data; and a mixer of computer-generated graphics and visual information.
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McKinnon, A. C.

(1984) Demonstrating the use of spatial optimising techniques by means of a freight distribution game. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 8(2): 151-157.

A freight distribution game is described, which is used to introduce students to three spatial optimising techniques. During the game, microcomputer software may be used to optimise depot location, the distribution of bulk flows from factories to depots, and to route delivery vehicles from depots to customers.
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Midgeley, H. (with Walker, D. R. F.)

(1985) Microcomputers in Geography Teaching. London, England: Hutchinson.

This book describes how teachers can write geographical software (in BASIC) for microcomputers. It explores three types of applications in detail (calculations, file handling and graphics), it describes the development of a professional educational package for geography teaching, and provides guidelines on acquiring and evaluating software. A further chapter discusses some of the issues involved in integrating the computer into the curriculum.
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Miller, R. P.

(1986) Using geocoded databases in teaching urban historical geography. Journal of Geography 85(4): 148-153.

Begins by describing the interest of the "new" urban history in the effects of race and ethnicity on social mobility. Considers the possibilities of using geographical databases for supporting the teaching of these ideas, and outlines the hardware and software resources required. Describes the pros and cons of various generic database programs, discusses various methods of geocoding, and identifies a number of relevant data sources, at both undergraduate and postgraduate level. Argues that the goal of developing computer-based databases should be to help students appreciate a few well-chosen aspects of urban growth and development, and not the creation of comprehensive data holdings which become an end in themselves.
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Moffatt, I.

(1986) Teaching environmental systems modelling using computer simulation. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 10(1): 53-60.

A course is decribed which teaches the concepts and techniques of the computer modelling of environmental systems. Senior undergraduates are shown how to analyse a system of interest, construct a flow chart of the system, and write computer programs in DYNAMO or BASIC to simulate real world environmental processes. A worked example is provided, along with an evaluation of the course.
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Norris, R. E.

(1973) MIGRAT : a computer-assisted instructional program for the simulation of migration. Professional Geographer 25(2): 167-168.

Describes an instructional program that simulates movement between designated places on a map. Students provide the locations of point-located places (towns, farmings, dwellings), and the program simulates the likely migration between them based on their population , or economic, social and political factors. Depending on the initial settings, the program can produce ghost towns as well as giant cities, and output is produced at each time step.
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Nunley, R. E., Sabol, J. S. and Youngmann, C. E.

(1969) A map that comes alive: an electric analogue computer. In: Huke R. E., Fielding, G. J., and Rumage, K. W. (eds.) Computer Instruction in Geography, pp. 151-163. AAG Commission on College Geography, Technical Paper No. 2. Washington DC: Association of American Geographers.

Describes how an inexpensive analogue field plotter can be used to "animate" maps drawn on teledeltos paper, which has a uniform resistance to the flow of electric current through it. The usefulness of the field plotter for helping students explore phenomena that are distributed across space is also described. Its application to the analysis of population potential is discussed in some detail.
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Pandit, K.

(1992) Exploring trends, interactions, and policies using a global simulation model. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 16(2): 217-224

Discusses the benefits of using global simulation models for teaching aspects of world geography and development issues. The author focuses on one computer model, International Futures, which has been specifically developed for educational use. Four teaching projects based on the use of this program are presented, and student experiences and comments on using the simulation are discussed.
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Porter, P. W., Devgani, A., and Skaggs, R.

(1972) Development of a computer assisted instructional unit in physical geography at the University of Minnesota. In: Fielding, G. J. and Rumage, K. W. (eds.) Computerized Instruction in Undergraduate Geography, pp. 25-40. AAG Commission on College Geography, Technical Paper No. 6. Washington, DC: Association of American Geographers.

Begins by arguing that a multiple approach to learning is essential, and offers a computer-based exercise that may be used in concert with other teaching methods to review and reinforce concepts in physical geography. Two review units are described which deal with the earth"s heat-moisture balance, and the climatic resources of East Africa. These lead on to a sequence of units which considers the relationship between African people and their physical environment. The style of these units is tutorial, providing textual information, asking simple questions, and proceeding on the basis of answers received.
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Raper, J. R. and Green, N. P. A.

(1989)a GIST: an object-oriented approach to a GIS tutor. SERRL Working Reports, No. 9. London: South East Regional Research Laboratory, Birkbeck College.

See entry for Raper and Green (1990).
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Raper, J. F. and Green, N. P. A.

(1989)b The further development of GIST: creating an on-line helper for spatial data processing. GIS/LIS "89 Proceedings, Vol. 2: pp. 601-610. Orlando, Florida.

See entry for Raper and Green (1990).
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Raper, J. R. and Green, N. P. A.

(1989)c GIST!: an object-oriented approach to a GIS tutor. Proceedings, Auto-Carto IX, pp. 610-619, Baltimore.

See entry for Raper and Green (1990).
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Raper, J. and Green, N.

(1990) The development of a hypertext-based tutor for geographical information systems. The CTISS File 9: 29-34.

Experience gained in the development of the ARCDEMO demonstrator program for GIS emphasises the importance of accommodating different student learning strategies. This issue was addressed in the development of the hypertext tutor, GIST! The characteristics of this program are discussed, and its use in teaching GIS concepts in undergraduate and short courses is described.
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Rees, P. H.

(1987) Teaching computing skills to geography students. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 11(2): 99-111.

Outlines the range of computing skills needed by contemporary geography students, and discusses the issues involved in teaching such skills in the context of a non-vocational geography course. The theme is illustrated with reference to facilities and courses developed in the geography department at the University of Leeds, and an honest evaluation is provided of the degree of success achieved by these courses educational effectiveness.
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Reeve, D.

(1985) Computing in the geography degree: limitations and objectives. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 9(1): 37-44.

The problems of introducing computing skills to geography undergraduates in the context of a balanced geography programme are discussed. The author proposes a "ladder" of essential computing skills, considering both the nature of the skills that undergraduates need, and the sequence in which they might be acquired.
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Riddle, D.

(1990) Ecodisc CD-ROM. The CTISS File 10: 27-31.

Describes the CD-ROM version of the Ecodisc system, which provides a multimedia simulation of a British nature reserve. Outlines the varied ways in which the system may be used educationally, either for the scientific study of the ecology of the nature reserve, or as a planning or management tool for investigating the impact of alternative policy changes on the reserve. Concludes with a discussion of the advantages of the CD-ROM version over the previous interactive video (i.e. videodisc) version, and indicates the complementary learning materials available for the disc.
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Robinson, R.

(1977) CAL in upper school geography. British Journal of Educational Technology 8(3): 225-234.

Describes the CALUSG project, which provides teachers and students of geography with printed teaching materials based on computer analyses of information and/or simulation runs. The aim is to provide computer- produced resource materials which can be used without access to a computer and without any knowledge of computing. An example is provided based on the analysis of population data for Birmingham.
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Root, J. D. and Stoltman, J. P.

(1973) Computer instruction in geography. Journal of Geography 72(4): 4-6.

Reports the findings of an evaluation of an interactive program that instructs students on the essentials of the von Thunen model. Concludes that the basic concepts of the model are learned more effectively through computer assisted instruction than through the traditional lecture.
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Rushton, G.

(1969) A computer model for the study of agricultural land use patterns. In: Huke R. E., Fielding, G. J., and Rumage, K. W. (eds.) Computer Instruction in Geography, pp. 141-150. AAG Commission on College Geography, Technical Paper No. 2. Washington DC: Association of American Geographers.

Describes a computer program (subsequently to become the well-known LANDUSE package) which was developed to help teach the principles of von Thunen"s model of agricultural land use patterns around urban centres. The model used in the program is described, and ways in which it can be used in teaching are discussed. Examples are provided of the line-printed maps produced by the program on the basis of student inputs.
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Shepherd, I. D. H., Walker, D. R. F. and Cooper, Z.

(1980) Computer Assisted Learning in Geography. London: Council for Educational Technology.

Provides a thorough review of the scope of computer assisted learning (CAL) in geography in 1980, and considers possible future developments. Issues discussed include: the nature of CAL; computer facilities available for use in teaching and learning geography; detailed case studies in the application of CAL in both physical and human geography; practical aspects of implementing CAL in the classroom; and a review of the diverse educational roles of the computer in geography teaching. A comprehensive bibliography is included.
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Shepherd, I. D. H.

(1977) Computerteach: printed resources for the computer assisted geography curriculum. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 1(2): 52-59.

Presents a comparative review of five books that provide different types of support for computer-based teaching in geography. Identifies three elements that teachers of geography require from such texts: clear overviews that enhance their awareness of the contributions of computer-based teaching; an exposition of the skills necessary to put such teaching into effect; and resource materials for immediate use in the classroom. Concludes by considering the ideal type of written material yet to be produced in the discipline.
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Shepherd, I. D. H.

(1983) The agony and the ecstasy: reflections on the microcomputer and geography teaching. In: Kent A. (ed.) Geography Teaching and the Micro, pp. 51-64. York, England: Longman.

Analyses why computer assisted learning has largely failed to make an impact on the teaching and learning of geography. Factors considered include teachers, existing curricula, courseware, and hardware). Urges caution in accepting the exaggerated claims of technologists, and points to the lack of empirical evidence about the educational effectiveness of computers in teaching. Greater attention to the non-technical issues surrounding the use of new technology is advocated
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Shepherd, I. D. H.

(1984) The electronic reading list: handling bibliographic references on a computer. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 8(2): 159-176.

Facilities for storing and accessing bibliographic references on computers are described. The first section introduces bibliographic information systems, and their advantages and disadvantages in teaching geography. The second section provides answers to commonly asked questions about this technology. The final section offers suggestions on how to acquire appropriate facilities of one"s own.
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Shepherd, I. D. H.

(1985) Teaching geography with the computer: possibilities and problems. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 9(1): 3-23.

The use of computers to improve both the teaching and learning of geography in higher education is described. Following a discussion of the problems and misconceptions surrounding computer assisted learning (CAL), the author reviews 11 educational roles for the computer in geography. The paper concludes with some principles for effective use of computer technology as a teaching resource.
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Shepherd, I. D. H.

(1991) Computer assisted learning and teaching. In: Gold, J. et al. (eds.) Teaching and Learning Geography in Higher Education. Oxford: Basil Blackwells

A comprehensive review of the potential of computers for teaching and learning geography in the 1990s. The first part of the chapter examines a number of computer-based technologies and discusses the types of educational application to which they may be suited. The second part adopts the opposite viewpoint, exploring a variety of teaching and learning activities, and providing examples of the type of support that the computer can bring to them. In the final section, a selection of issues concerned with the successful implementation of computer assisted learning in geography is discussed educational effectiveness.
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Silk, J.

(1979) Use of classroom experiments and the computer to illustrate statistical concepts. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 3(1): 13-25.

Computer-based experiments are described in which students can interactively explore statistical concepts. The sampling distributions of test statistics in point pattern analysis are used to illustrate the approach.
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Silvert, W.

(1984) Teaching ecological modelling with electronic spreadsheets. Collegiate Microcomputer 2: 129-133.

Argues the case for the educational use of general-purpose spreadsheet software in various academic disciplines. Illustrates the idea by describing a number of ecological spreadsheet models developed for use in undergraduate teaching.
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Stark, R.

(1986) Demonstrating sociology: computers in the classroom. In: McGee, R. (ed.) Teaching the Mass Class, pp. 130-141. Washington D. C., American Sociological Association. *

Discusses the challenge of teaching introductory sociology to large classes (up to 800 students). Describes a computer-based tool, the "Sociology Showcase", which is used as an electronic blackboard to demonstrate sociological concepts. Illustrates its effectiveness by describing how it is used to discuss spatial patterns in aggregate or ecological data. The software rapidly produces high quality maps from data at a variety of scales from large datasets. Argues that mass class teaching demands an element of theatre and that this can be helped by the use of appropriate computer technology.
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Stephens, J. D. and Whittick, R. I.

(1975) An instructional unit for simulating urban residential segregation. Professional Geographer 27(3): 340-346.

Describes the SIRES program, designed for use with undergraduate geography students, which simulates the decision making process that leads to urban residential segregation. Using Monte Carlo simulation, the program implements the Invasion-Succession model of neighbourhood change in order to produce a series of maps illustrating the stages of penetration, invasion, consolidationa and piling-up. Resultant patterns are displayed on a line-printer map. Students can select one of four starting patterns while the program randomly assigns black and white populations to the study area. On an educational note, the authors argue for the use of such simulation programs in an integrated fashion with other methods of instruction. They see computer-based simulations being able to provide an environment in which students can test concepts learned elsewhere (e.g. through lectures), and a learning situation which they themselves control.
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Sumner, G.

(1984)a Video kills the lecturing star: new technologies and the teaching of meteorology. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 8(2): 115-124.

The educational potential of time-lapse video sequences and weather data obtained using a conventional microcomputer is discussed. The combination of video and computer technology in teaching meteorology is illustrated by the study of the evolution of sea-breeze fronts in Wales.
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Sumner, G.

(1984)b Lightning never strikes twice! Area 16(2): 109-114.

Describes a microcomputer-controlled weather station which automatically gathers local weather data. Although developed as a research tools it is suggested that the system may also be used to good effect in teaching.
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Tapper, R.

(1986) The BBC Domesday Project - an educational review. Journal of Educational Television 12(3): 197-210

Describes the multimedia BBC Domesday Project and reviews two aspects of their educational impact. First, it describes the data gathering activities of the thousands of British school childrean who provided information for inclusion on the Community Disc. Second, it outlines the wealth of educational resources provided by the completed video-discs for subsequent classroom use. It concludes with thoughts on the type of learning that will be fostered by this innovative and unique educational material.
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Unwin, D. J.

(1981) Teaching a model-based climatology using energy balance simulation. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 5(2): 133-138.

Describes a computer-based model to help teach about the surface energy balance in climatology. The model is described, and various exercises are reported which have been used by students to experiment with the effects of land use change on local climate. Finally, a critique is offered, both of the model used, and of the modelling approach to teaching this particular subject matter.
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Unwin, D. J.

(1982) Maps on micros. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 6(2): 163-169.

Provides a comparative review of three computer-based mapping and satellite image processing programs available on low-cost microcomputers. Argues that geographers might consider buying computer hardware specifically to support effective items of software, rather than purchasing the currently most popular hardware and hope to develop software thereafter.
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Unwin, D. J.

(1990)a Using computers to help students learn: computer assisted learning in geography. Area 23(1): 25-34.

Attempts to correct common misconceptions among geographers as to how computers may be used in geography teaching by first examining currently available materials for computer-based teaching, and then by reviewing geographical applications reported in the literature. The review is organised around four broad uses of computers: as sources of data and information; as analytical tools; as laboratories for investigating the world; and as instructors.
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Unwin, D. J.

(1980)b Make your practicals open-ended. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 4(2): 37-42.

Considers the rather prescriptive, or "closed" type of practical work typical of many geography courses and proposes an alternative, "open" form of practical, supported by computer-based exercises, which gives students far greater scope to make decisions at all steps of the work, thereby more fully developing their practical skills. Illustrates the idea with examples from a quantitative methods course, and identifies the type of software that students may use in this context.
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Unwin, D. J.

(1991) Using computers to help students learn: computer assisted learning in geography. Area 23(1): pp. 25-34.

Reviews the literature of computer-assisted learning in geography over the past 20 years in order to identify the roles that the computer has taken in the learning process. Four broad application areas are identified: computers as sources of data and information; computers as analytical tools; computers as laboratories for investigating the world; and computers as instructors. Concludes with a reflection on the rather low level of use of computers for teaching many parts of the geography curriculum, despite its frequent supporting role in the more "practical" parts of geography courses.
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Unwin, D. J. and Maguire, D.

(1989) CTI Centre for Geography at the University of Leicester. The CTISS File 8: 22-25.

Argues that a considerable amount of software is now available for use in teaching geography, and that the need exists for a clearinghouse to provide teachers with ready access to this material. Goes on to outline the role of the recently established Computers in Teaching Initiative Centre for Geography, based at the University of Leicester.
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Wang, Z., Chu, D. K. Y., Wong, K. and Huang, G.

(1985) Choropleth mapping by micro-computer: an application in geographic-cartographic education. Asian Geographer 4(1): 23-41.

Describes a computer-based choropleth mapping system, running on an Apple II and dot-matrix printer, which was designed specifically for undergraduate student use. The benefits of using such software in an educational context are discussed, and full source code listings (in Applesoft BASIC ) are provided.
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Watson, D. M.

(1988) Learning Geography with Computers - an Inservice Resource Pack. In Lovis, F. and Tagg, E. D. (eds.) Computers in Education, pp.45-50. Amsterdam, Elsevier Science Publishers.

Reviews the limited uptake of computer assisted learning in (schools) geography in the United Kingdom, and describes the development of a resource pack intended to remedy this problem. The pack was designed to be used by local authority advisors, teacher trainers and teachers themselves when considering the adoption of computers for geography teaching.
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Watson, D. M.

(1989) The philosophy and issues behind the Inservice Resource Pack: "Learning Geography with Computers". Computer Education 62: 9-13.

Reviews the limited uptake of computer assisted learning in (schools) geography in the United Kingdom, and describes the development of a resource pack intended to remedy this problem. The pack was designed to be used by local authority advisors, teacher trainers and teachers themselves when considering the adoption of computers for geography teaching.
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Wiegand, P.

(1987) Teaching geography with spreadsheets. Teaching Geography 12(5): 195-197.

Describes the spreadsheet, and considers a number of potential applications in both human and physical geography.
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Wishart, P., Chambers, A. and Ericksen, N.

(1989) EDUFLOOD: an interactive computer package for educating decision makers on urban flood hazard reduction. Hamilton, N.Z., University of Waikato.

Describes an interactive computer program designed to educate decision makers on urban flood problems, and how flood-plain development can be managed so that losses from flooding may be minimised. Describes the structure and scope of the program modules, and how these can be used by a variety of users.
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Yeates, M. H. and Nicholson, T. G.

(1969) Computer assisted instruction (CAI) units on map projections and the concept of scale. In: Huke R. E., Fielding, G. J., and Rumage, K. W. (eds.) Computer Instruction in Geography, pp. 115-139. AAG Commission on College Geography, Technical Paper No. 2. Washington DC: Association of American Geographers.

Describes a CAI unit developed to help teach the principles of spatial association and its measurement. The pros and cons of using the APL programming language for developing the unit is discussed, and the entire script for the unit is included.
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The Geography Discipline Network would like to thank Ifan Shepherd for permission to reproduce this material

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