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Fieldwork in the Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences Higher Education Curriculum

An Annotated Bibliography

Claire Cottingham, Mick Healey and Phil Gravestock

This annotated bibliography is part of a project to identify the main recent English literature about fieldwork in geography and the earth and environmental sciences in higher education. A few key references to literature relating to fieldwork in schools are also included. Most of the references have been written since 1990.

At this stage the bibliography is inevitably partial and readers are invited to let us know of missing references. The intention is to add other references as they are published and we would welcome you alerting us to new literature. Please send details of references we have missed to Phil Gravestock.

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

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ASHWORTH, G. J. (1983) The use of data collection exercises in field courses, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 7(2) pp. 141-149.

Dutch geography degree courses like those in Britain are committed to fieldwork, which is now usually based on student data collection exercises. Some issues raised by such exercises are considered. The accuracy of the data collected by students was monitored in a study of commercial activities in Perpignan in 1981-2 with data available from official lists. The causes of error, and some lessons relevant to future fieldwork, are examined.

Keywords: Fieldwork objectives, data handling.

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BADGER, R. (1995) Course integration through student research projects in geology, Journal of Geological Education, 43(5) pp. 477-479.

The problem students have transferring concepts learnt in one course to another is countered by teaching two different modules using the same field site. Students studying structural geology in one term and metamorphic petrology in the next are able to synthesise information they obtain from both courses.

(Courtesy of Grant & Higgitt, 1997)

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BATES, D. (1993) Videos in fieldwork and the classroom, Teaching Earth Sciences, 18(1) pp. 21-22.

Some hints are provided for making videos of fieldwork to use as an overview of activities after students have finished their fieldwork.

(Courtesy of Grant & Higgitt, 1997)

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BERG. L.D. (1994) Masculinity, place, and a binary discourse of theory and empirical investigation in the human geography of Aotearoa/New Zealand, Gender, Place and Culture, 1(2), pp. 245-260.

This paper discusses a binary discourse of 'theory' and 'empirical investigation' in the human geography practiced in Aotearoa (New Zealand). I attempt to illustrate the way in which such dichotomous thinking articulates with the social construction of a hegemonic masculinity to effect a specific geographic understanding of the world. I suggest that this theory/empirical investigation binary gives rise to at least three significant problems in geographic research: a gendered and hierarchical structuring of geographic thought, a devaluation of the feminised term in the binary, and unworkable 'mobile positioning' of the researcher.

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BRADBEER, J. (1996) Problem-based learning and fieldwork: a better method of preparation? Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 20(1) pp. 11-18.

This paper suggests that geographers could profitably employ problem-based learning (PBL) in the preparation of students for field classes. Following a brief review of recent issues and contributions to teaching and learning on field classes, the paper examines the characteristics of PBL and its application in other disciplines, especially medicine. It is argued that PBL encourages active and deep learning in students and can readily be applied to fieldwork preparation. A case study of such an application to a second-year undergraduate field class is given.

Keywords: Problem-based learning, active learning, deep learning.

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BURGESS, J. and JACKSON, P. (1992) Streetwork - an encounter with place, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 16(2) pp. 151-157.

The Streetwork project is a practical exercise in carrying out a qualitative study of people-in-place. It forms the core of our teaching in cultural geography at University College London (UCL). Forming part of a second year course the project develops the initial exposure to qualitative fieldwork experienced during a first year field course. The nature and implementation of the project is described and the skills training involved in the course is outlined. The project has been taught in a number of different settings and student reaction indicates that it is a valuable exercise. However, a variety of problems have been raised in the course of teaching the project and the paper concludes with a discussion of these issues.

Keywords: Qualitative research, cultural geography.

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BURT, T. and BUTCHER, D. (1986) Stimulation from Simulation? A teaching model of hillslope hydrology for use on microcomputers, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 10(1) pp. 23-39.

The design and use of a simple computer model which simulates aspects of hillslope hydrology is described in a teaching context. The model shows how a relatively complex environmental system can be constructed on the basis of simple but realistic theory thus allowing the student to simulate the hydrological response of real hillslopes. Initial runs allow the student to explore how the system operates; at this stage the model can serve as an important adjunct to lectures and field studies. At a more advanced level the model can be used as a means of extending investigations well beyond the possibilities of controlled field experimentation; a large number of simulations can be run in a short time and the results used to define the role of particular variables.

Keywords: Computer technology' lectures.

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CLARK, D. (1996) The changing national context of fieldwork in geography, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 20(3) pp. 385-391

The purpose and role of fieldwork in geographical education are examined. Fieldwork provision and practice have been affected by the replacement of a 'traditional' by a 'new' pattern of higher education in the United Kingdom. The key features of these contrasting structures are identified. Contextual changes pose threats but also introduce opportunities for innovation and change in fieldwork teaching, learning, assessment and organisation. An agenda for the development of fieldwork in geography is outlined.

Keywords: 'Traditional' higher education, 'new' higher education, learning goals.

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CLARK, G. (1997) The educational value of the rural trail: a short walk in the Lancashire countryside, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 21(3) pp. 349-362.

This paper explores the educational value of a rural trail - a field visit on foot - using as an example a trail in a small area of countryside near Lancaster in northern England. This trail provides those teaching rural geography in higher education with a means of developing their students' skills of informed observation and interpretation of field evidence based on study and discussion on-site. A trail can enhance the appreciation and teaching of conceptual matters such as cultural approaches to rural geography. It also encourages the integration of diverse theoretical approaches to rural studies (based on culture, planning and management) and the simultaneous consideration by students of both local (often personal) details and national (or even global) pressures for change. The paper concludes that the rural trail has considerable pedagogical and academic merit for rural geographers.

Keywords: Trail, rural geography.

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COOKE, M.L., ANDERSON, K.A. and FORREST, S.E. (1997) Creating accessible introductory geology fieldtrips, Journal of Geological Education, 45, pp. 4-9.

Introductory geology courses comprise an important part of a complete undergraduate education, and federal law stipulates that they must be accessible to all students. Mobility-impaired students, unfortunately, tend to avoid courses with required field trips because of real and perceived barriers to physical accessibility. Inexpensive evaluation, revision, and creation of accessible laboratories are pragmatic approaches that satisfy federal laws and open earth-science careers to talented students with mobility impairments.

We have developed three new accessible field exercises for Stanford University's introductory geology course that improved the course rather than compromising its academic merit. In developing two new field trips, we set the following goals: 1) to locate potential sites relevant to material; 2) to eliminate obviously inaccessible location; 3) to evaluate the remaining sites with regard to accessibility criteria developed with advice of mobility-impaired students; 4) to test site accessibility with mobility-impaired persons; and 5) to advertise the new field trips. A third exercise creates a hypothetical field problem to teach principles of geologic mapping in an accessible setting.

Keywords: Earth science teaching - non-traditional clientele; education - general; geology - field trips and field study; geology - teaching and curriculum; mobility-impaired students.

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COSGROVE, D. and DANIELS, S. (1989) Fieldwork as theatre. a week's performance in Venice and its region, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 13(2) pp. 169-182.

The conventions of fieldwork are reassessed in the light of teaching a week's field course on the landscape and culture of Venice and its region. The metaphor of 'theatre' helps conceptualise the present post-structuralist insistence on representation in relations between land and life, as well as the more traditional geographic emphasis on observation. The metaphor of theatre is articulated through the exercises of the fieldwork, including urban trails, coach trips, discussion sessions, group projects and, not least, the experience of living for a week in an Italian city.

Keywords: Urban trails, cultural geography, fieldwork aims.

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COUCH, I. (1986) Fieldwork skills - the potential of foreign environments, In R. Barass, D. Blair, P. Garnham and A. Moscardini (Eds.) Environmental Science: Teaching and Practice (Northallerton, Emjoc Press) pp. 247-252.

The potential of foreign fieldwork is assessed, concentrating on 3 particular types of fieldwork strategy: research projects, problem solving and contact with practitioners. Suggestions for effective foreign field course design are then outlined.

(Courtesy of Grant & Higgitt, 1997)

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DESFORGES, H. (1999) Inclusive geography fieldwork, Teaching Geography, January, pp.14-16.

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DISINGER, J. F. (1985) Environmental education research news, The Environmentalist, 5(2) pp. 85-88.

This article reviews several recent studies from the United States concerning fieldwork in educational settings and its value.

Keywords: Educational value.

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DOVE, J. (1997) Perceptual geography through urban trails, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 21(1) pp. 79-88.

Perception of our environment is subjective. Reality is influenced by personal experience, bias, interests, knowledge, cultural background, age and disability. This concept is exemplified through the planning, implementation and evaluation of an assignment whereby students design urban trails for users with special needs such as those with partial sight, or those with a particular interest. These assignments are designed to be student-centred, related to the three major domains of learning and formally assessed. Assessment is by an evaluation of the information utilised by the user on the trail, together with a class presentation. Student evaluation is by questionnaire analysis and group discussion.

Keywords: Projects, perception, environment, trail, local.

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DUBOIS, D. (1978) A field-based curriculum model for earth-science teacher preparation programs, Journal of Geological Education, 27(1) pp. 13-15.

Using a search of the literature and questionnaires with teacher practitioners, a list of 70 'cognitive-behavioural' objectives for field-based geology programmes is derived.

(Courtesy of Grant & Higgitt, 1997)

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ELLIS, B. (1993) Introducing humanistic geography through fieldwork, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 17(2) pp. 131-139.

One challenge of teaching humanistic geography is to encourage students' responses to landscapes in ways which may be different from their previous experience. Conventional wisdom about successful field teaching suggests that students should be prepared beforehand with the skills and techniques to be employed. The author questions how appropriate this is in humanistic geography and the article describes and evaluates an alternative approach using fieldwork as the introductory activity.

Keywords: Humanistic geography, preparation.

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FINLAYSON, B. (1981) The analysis of stream suspended loads as a geomorphological teaching exercise, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 5(1) pp. 23-35.

The sampling and analysis of suspended solids in streams can be used as a teaching exercise, which can be carried out using simple techniques and relatively cheap equipment. Examples of practical exercises involving both field and laboratory work are described.

Keywords: Geomorphology, laboratory work.

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FORD, C.E. (1998) Supporting fieldwork using the Internet, Computers & Geosciences, 24(7), pp.649-651

In the United Kingdom, a number of recent Information Technology projects have been sponsored by the Higher Education Funding Councils to promote efficiency and quality in education. This article describes a project in which the focus is on the development of tools: methods and software to help teachers with limited time and technical ability to produce course support materials for laboratory and field classes. Tools under development to support fieldwork include Web forms interfaces for producing location maps, virtual reality models of field locations and panoramas with sound commentary.

Keywords: Internet; Virtual reality; Geological fieldwork

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FRY, N. (1984) The Field Description of Metamorphic Rocks (Milton Keynes, Open University Press).

This compact book written with final year undergraduates in mind and is designed to be used in the field. It looks at describing metamorphic rocks, rock masses and the basic equipment needed in the field. Topic areas include: mapping metamorphic rocks; banding; minerals - rock types - composition - grades; textures - fabrics - cleavage - schistosity; scattered critites; contacts and reaction zones; faults - mylonites and cataclanites with a set of reference tables and checklists at the back.

Keywords: Metamorphic rocks, field handbook, equipment.

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FULLER, I., RAWLINSON, S. & BEVAN, R. (2000) Evaluation of Student Learning Experiences in Physical Geography Fieldwork: paddling or pedagogy?, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 24(2), pp.199-215.

This paper reports a project carried out with first-year geography students undertaking physical geography fieldwork. An experiment within the context of fluvial studies tests the effectiveness of student learning using contrasting approaches based on analytical-prediction and descriptive-explanation. The results, based on marks analysis and a review of student feedback, indicate that in the short term the traditional descriptive-explanation approach is significantly more conducive to student learning than the analytical-predictive mode.

Keywords: Physical geography, analytical-predictive, descriptive-explanation, student learning.

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FYFE, N. R. (1992) Observations on observations, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 16(2) pp. 127-133.

Observational fieldwork enables the completion of a qualitative research project despite the tight constraints of a research methods course. At the same time, the project enables the illustration of more general features of qualitative research. This paper considers the need to deconstruct the 'folk myth' surrounding observational work and provides clear, practical guidance on completing a piece of research. Completion of the project helps to uncover the role of students as analysts. The paper concludes with a discussion of student's reactions to their introduction to qualitative work and the constraints upon its wider adoption.

Keywords: Observation skills, qualitative research.

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GARDINER, V. (1996) Applying a systems approach to the management of change in fieldwork, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 20(3) pp. 422-429.

Fieldwork is increasingly subject to a variety of external pressures. The management of change in fieldwork provision can be aided by an appreciation of the systemic nature of fieldwork. Social paradigms of team behaviour are particularly applicable to fieldwork, and to understanding some systems failures.

Keywords: Systems, failures.

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GARDINER, V. and DACKOMBE, R. (1983) Geomorphological Field Manual (London, George Allen & Unwin Ltd.).

This is not a book on field techniques but is meant as a handbook to be used during geomorphological research. It provides information for effective fieldwork and assumes the reader knows the essentials of the techniques they are using. The structure of the book follows that of Goudie et al (1981) and is well illustrated. Topic areas include topographic surveys; geomorphological mapping, slope profiling, mapping landscape materials, fluvial processes, slope processes, sampling and safety issues.

Keywords: Geomorphology, effective fieldwork, fluvial, glacial, aeolian, coasts, slopes.

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GARDINER, V. and UNWIN, D. J. (1986) Computers and the field class, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 10(2) pp. 169-179.

Using computers in field classes makes it possible to do educationally desirable things which are very difficult or impossible without their assistance. They allow students to have a much greater sense of involvement in the projects carried out, and a greater sense of achievement results. Such advantages are illustrated by two exercises in which field class computing was an essential component. The most significant problem likely to be encountered is the date-entry 'bottleneck'. Suggestions are made concerning this and other potential problems of a practical nature.

Keywords: Computers, project work.

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GARVER, J. I. (1992) A field-based course in stratigraphy and sedimentology, Journal of Geological Education, 40(2) pp. 119-124.

A weekly field and lab-based course in stratigraphy and sedimentology is integrated and synthesised via a regional analysis and an overall write up at the end of the course, After studying and describing the geological characteristics of a variety of field sites in the local area, the historical and regional context is introduced and students produce an overall report in which they rewrite their weekly notes within this wider context.

(Courtesy of Grant & Higgitt, 1997)

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GEMMELL, A. M. D. (1995) Competitive simulation in the teaching of applied geomorphology: an experiment, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 19(1) pp. 29-39.

The use of a team approach for project work in many areas of geography can be expanded to provide the student with an enhanced range of experience through the introduction of a 'competitive' bidding element. This element simulates a commercial environment so that teams of students compete to convince assessors that their proposal should win the 'contract' for a postulated commercial enterprise such as a freight terminal or the site for an industrial development. An example, based around the election of a routeway for a natural gas pipeline, is presented.

Keywords: Teamwork, competitive simulation, applied geomorphology.

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GERBER, R. and CHUAN, G.K. (Eds) (2000) Fieldwork in Geography: Reflections, Perspectives and Actions (The Netherlands, Kluwer Academic Publishers).

Geographers regard fieldwork as a vital instrument for understanding our world through direct experience, for gathering basic data about this world, and as a fundamental method for enacting geographical education. The range of international geography and educational experts who contributed to this volume has demonstrated that the concept of fieldwork has a considerable history in the field of geography. They have demonstrated that the theoretical aspects of fieldwork have been interpreted differently in regions around the world, but the importance of fieldwork remains strong globally. A fresh look at the pedagogic implications for fieldwork in formal education offers ideas both for promoting it in geographical education and for maintaining its place in the geography curriculum.

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GOLD, J. R. and HAIGH, M. J. (1992) Over the hills and far away: retaining field study experience despite larger classes, In G. Gibbs and A. Jenkins (Eds.) Teaching Large Classes in Higher Education (London, Kogan Page) pp. 117-129.

Fieldwork is seen as a vital element to many disciplines. This case study reports the experience of a group of geographers who, faced with declining staff-student ratios succeeded in holding on to quality by radically changing how students learn on field courses. There are elements of control in the strategies used; for example, the use of teacher-defined fieldwork trails. Most of the strategies however are independence strategies and require students to work generally in small groups that shape their own objectives, strategies of enquiry and how they use their time. This innovation involves self and peer-assessment and as students are largely assessed as a group the assessment loading on staff is limited. Such group work requires skilled staff support and monitoring.

Keywords: Staff-student ratios, trails, group work, self and peer-assessment.

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GOLD, J. R., JENKINS, A., LEE R., MONK, J., RILEY, J., SHEPHERD, I. and UNWIN, D. (1991) Teaching Geography in Higher Education: A manual of good practice (Oxford, Blackwell) pp. 22-35.

This chapter considers the origins and characteristics of field teaching and the range of teaching styles that occur before looking at the roles and objectives of fieldwork. It then examines the methods for effectively organising fieldwork, its educational value and highlights the problems that currently affect fieldwork.

Keywords: Fieldwork objectives, organisation, problems.

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GOUDIE, A., ANDRESON, M., BURT, T., LEWIN, J., RICHARDS, K., WHALLEY, B. and WORSLEY, P. (1990) Geomorphological Techniques, Second Edition (London, George Allen & Unwin Ltd.).

This is a well illustrated book and is designed to provide a guide to useful techniques in geomorphology with the criticisms and merits of a number of techniques. It is designed to be used in conjunction with the Geomorphological Field Manual By Gardiner and Dackombe (1983). The book is split into 4 parts covering from; materials upon which landforms occur; processes that mould the materials and evolution and history of the landscape.

Keywords: Geomorphology, techniques, form, materials, landforms.

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GRANT, A. and HIGGITT, M. (1997) Teaching and Learning Bibliography: Fieldwork Teaching, Teaching & Learning Bibliographies: Developments in Higher Education No. 19 (Leicester, University of Leicester).

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GRATTON, J. (1999) Who would have thought it? C&IT skills development via a geography fieldcourse, GeoCal, 20, pp.5-9.

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GRAVESTOCK, P. & HEALEY, M. (2001) Providing Learning Support for Disabled Students Undertaking Fieldwork and Related Activities, (Cheltenham: Geography Discipline Network).

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HAIGH, M. J. (1996) Empowerment, ethics, environmental action: a practical exercise, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 20(3) pp. 399-411.

Just as active learning creates a deeper understanding than passive learning, so active geography grants a deeper understanding of geographical processes than passive geography. Geography students may be empowered to use their knowledge to improve the world they inhabit. However, to be effective they also need a holistic appreciation of both the ecological and ethical implications of their actions. They must become attuned both to their own internal preconceptions and to those which direct and constrain others. They must become capable of seeing their actions through the eyes of others. The exercise reported here tries to highlight these issues through the systematic critical analysis of a technical land reclamation project. Simulation is employed to encourage students to match practical solutions in landscape reclamation to wider issues in environmental ethics. In particular, students are encouraged to examine their own motivation for advocating particular technical solutions, to consider the value systems implicit in technical solutions proposed by others, and to examine environmental actions in context.

Keywords: Applied geography, active learning, promoting student self-awareness, environmental values, land reclamation, south Wales.

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HAIGH, M. and GOLD, J. R. (1993) The problems with fieldwork: a group based approach towards integrating fieldwork into the undergraduate geography curriculum, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 17(1) pp. 21-32.

Field study, widely regarded as an essential part of geographical higher education, is under severe pressure due to its high cost, resource demands and a legacy of poor educational practices that have left it on the fringes of the curriculum. This paper outlines a case study of an undergraduate module, framed around a field course, which seeks to integrate fieldwork into the curriculum by combining training in field study with training in research and presentation skills. The module employs group-based project work throughout, with no items assessed individually. The paper concludes by pointing to the pedagogic and tactical advantages of the approach adopted, but warns against the overuse of group work.

Keywords: Higher education pressures, curriculum design, project work.

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HALL, T., HEALEY, M. & HARRISON, M. (2002) Fieldwork and disabled students: discourses of exclusion and inclusion, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 27(2), pp.213-231.

Disabled students form a significant but under represented minority in higher education in the UK. Participation appears to be particularly low in disciplines that contain a fieldwork component. Fieldwork has been recognized as a barrier to the participation of disabled students. This paper emphasizes a critical perspective on fieldwork, highlighting the way in which fieldcourses as currently conceived, enacted and experienced, can exclude disabled students. It discusses a survey of the experiences of providing learning support to disabled students undertaking fieldwork in geography, earth and environmental science departments in the UK. It also considers the various ways in which the images, spaces, practices and cultures of fieldwork may exclude or marginalize disabled students and the different ways in which fieldwork may be made more inclusive.

Keywords: Disabled students, fieldwork, higher education, exclusion, discourses, strategies for inclusion.

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HARRISON, C. and LUITHLEN, L. (1983) Fieldwork for land use students: an appraisal, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 7(1) pp. 23-32.

The paper attempts to evaluate a series of field courses undertaken with Land Use Studies students between 1977 and 1982 in different urban areas of Britain and draws some general conclusions with regard to environmental fieldwork. The complexion of the first field course programme is outlined and it is shown how, during subsequent years, the emphasis has shifted both in respect of content and methods. Activities and exercises are evaluated and a three-dimensional 'learning experience space' is suggested for the purpose of analysing individual tasks as well as the structure of entire field course programmes.

Keywords: Environment, 'learning experience space'.

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HART, C. F. and THOMAS, T. (1986) Framework fieldwork, In D. Boardman (Ed.) Handbook for Geography Teachers (Sheffield, Geographical Association) pp. 205-218.

A 3 dimensional framework for fieldwork is developed. The three dimensions of people environment interactions, procedures and techniques and application of ideas and concepts provides fieldwork with a themed focus and prevents it becoming overly technique- or topic-driven.

(Courtesy of Grant & Higgitt, 1997)

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HARVEY, P.K. (1991) The Role and Value of A-Level Geography Fieldwork: a case study, unpublished PhD thesis, University of Durham.

Geographical fieldwork is often justified by appeal to multiple purposes, and its published aims are characterized by their diversity of explicit and implicit educational goals. Research to date suggests that teachers are mainly occupied with the cognitive and technical aspects of fieldwork to the neglect of the emotions and feelings which affect student learning. Much of this research on fieldwork has also focused on teaching effectiveness with an inadequate understanding of how students and teachers make sense of their fieldwork experiences.

This study is a qualitative multiple case study of the field work experiences of Secondary Four (Year 10) students of five secondary schools in Hong Kong. It is an experientially-based study which aims at understanding the fieldwork experiences of both students and teachers and what meanings they have derived from these experiences.

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HAWLEY, D. (1993) Field sketches: purpose, principles and practice, Teaching Earth Sciences, 18(2) pp. 60-62.

The purposes, principles and methods of field sketching in geology are outlined.

(Courtesy of Grant & Higgitt, 1997)

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HEALEY, M. & JENKINS, A. (2000) Kolb's experiential learning theory and its application in geography in higher education, Journal of Geography, 99, pp. 185-195.

Kolb's experiential learning theory is one of the best known educational theories in higher education. The theory presents a way of structuring a session or a whole course using a learning cycle. The different stages of the cycle are associated with distinct learning styles. Individuals differ in their preferred learning styles, and recognizing this is the first stage in raising students' awareness of the alternative approaches possible. This article presents some case studies of ways in which the theory can be applied in university geography.

Keywords: learning cycles, learning styles, Kolb's experiential learning theory, learning and teaching, geography in higher education.

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HENDRIX, T. E. (1978) An assessment of field courses in geology, Journal of Geological Education, 26(4) pp. 160-164.

Based on a survey of summer geology camps, the main objectives and prerequisites for studying on summer camp are identified. Five key objectives are identified, namely: to increase student self-confidence, to integrate class-based knowledge; to teach fundamental field skills; to develop a sense of geological reality and scale; and to provide an extended immersion in the subject.

(Courtesy of Grant & Higgitt, 1997)

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HESS, D. F. and MEIERDING, T. (1972) The campus geology field trip, Journal of Geological Education, 20(3) pp. 149-150.

The production of a geological field guide of the university campus and environs demonstrated the potential for providing useful, cheap field opportunities. As well as being capable of providing useful examples of certain geological structures and rock types, it can also engender an appreciation for architectural history, economic geology and teach students to become more observant of their local environment.

(Courtesy of Grant & Higgitt, 1997)

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HIGGITT, D. (1996) The effectiveness of student-authored field trails as a means of enhancing geomorphological interpretation, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 20(1) pp. 35-44.

A course developed to enhance students' appreciation of local geomorphology through the construction of interpretative held trails is described. Students work in teams to produce a trail leaflet and designs for information boards. The emphasis on field-based activity, student-led participation and the notion of a target audience differs from traditional geomorphology courses. The extent to which these skills complement other geomorphological teaching is considered. Strategies for achieving a suitable balance between practical and theoretical material and for encouraging teamwork dynamics are identified as important components of course design.

Keywords: Geomorphology, trails, peer assessment, self assessment.

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HIGGITT, M. (1996) Addressing the new agenda for fieldwork in higher education, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 20(3) pp. 391-398.

Recent changes in higher education in the UK effectively make the traditional mode of fieldwork delivery unsustainable. This, coupled with criticisms of past fieldwork practices, suggests the need for a thorough re-evaluation of the role and delivery of fieldwork programmes in contemporary higher education. A prudent place to start addressing this new agenda is an evaluation of some basic educational theory and the objectives of fieldwork. From such basic considerations, some of the contemporary problems with teaching fieldwork can be more effectively tackled and strategies for designing field exercises devised.

Keywords: Contemporary higher education, educational theory, course design.

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HINDLE, B. P. (1993) The 'Project': putting student-controlled, small-group work and transferable skills at the core of a geography course, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 17(1) pp. 11-20.

The advantages and problems of project work in geography are outlined. The origins of the large-scale 'Project' at Salford are seen in the need for a new curriculum, and in the University's 'education for capability' objectives, which led to the Project being placed at the philosophical core of the new degree course in 1987. The Project has subsequently been translated into the department's 'Enterprise' scheme. The structure of the Project is outlined, with particular reference to group size and working, student control, task selection, staff input, geographical and professional skills, assessment, and problems. Three tasks are outlined, and student reaction is assessed.

Keywords: Large-scale projects, curriculum design, assessment.

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HMI (1992) A Survey of Geography Fieldwork in Degree Courses (Stanmore, Department of Education and Science).

Fieldwork enhances students' geographical understanding, and allows them to develop important specific and general skills. Most students undertake satisfactory amounts of fieldwork. Individual visits are generally well organised but some overall programmes of work are not sufficiently well co-ordinated. Not all fieldwork takes place at appropriate times. Many departments spend large proportions of their budgets on fieldwork, and although teachers make good efforts to minimise costs some students make substantial financial contributions. Some departments with rising numbers of students are experiencing difficulties in staffing fieldwork and not all have given sufficient consideration to how fieldwork can best be offered to increased numbers. Students are generally adequately briefed for fieldwork, but not all departments have adequate safety codes. Staff and students work long hours during fieldcourses. Students achieve satisfactory to good standards, with some dissertations based on fieldwork being of excellent standard. Teaching is satisfactory or good. Staff pay too little attention to students' prior field experiences. Most assessment is based on written work and does not address a broader range of skills. Some students receive too little feedback on their fieldwork. Quality control is satisfactory.

Keywords: Skills, finance, increasing student numbers, preparation.

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HURSH, B. A. and BORZAK, L. (1979) Toward cognitive development through field studies, Journal of Higher Education, 50(1) pp. 63-78.

Based on the premise that fieldwork's goals are often poorly defined and its success often uncritically accepted, research conducted to determine the impact fieldwork has on students is outlined. The study shows that fieldwork impacts upon students' attitudes, widening their view of the role of the student and challenging previous black and white conceptions of the world, leading to more relativistic stances. The benefits for more traditional vocational goals are less developed. Fieldwork helps students develop in relation to both Perry's educational taxonomy and Kolb's experiential learning theory.

(Courtesy of Grant & Higgitt, 1997)

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HURST, A. (1998) Students with disabilities and opportunities to study abroad, Journal of Studies in International Education, 2(2) pp.117-129.

Within the context of increasing opportunities for study abroad, it is important to ensure that students with disabilities can be included in international programmes. However, to ensure that their participation is of the highest quality, there are several additional challenges to be met. The first section of the paper explores these and discusses the availability of appropriate information, financial concerns, and issues of access, both in the physical sense of access to buildings and also the educational sense of access to learning and the curriculum. The following section describes three case studies of disabled students and study abroad, including individual visits, group arrangements, and a European pilot programme organised from Ireland. The closing section provides some brie practical guidelines to assist the inclusion of students with disabilities in international programmes.

Keywords: Foreign study, access, European pilot, guidelines.

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HURST, S.D. (1998) Use of "virtual" field trips in teaching introductory geology, Computers & Geosciences, 24(7), pp.653-658.

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JENKINS, A. (1994) Thirteen ways of doing fieldwork with large classes/more students, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 18(2) pp. 143-154.

The problems of maintaining geography fieldwork with increased student numbers is outlined. Thirteen strategies for coping with these problems are described. Individuals and, in particular, departments are urged to redesign their fieldwork programme using and developing these suggestions to address their own educational priorities.

Keywords: Large classes, increased SSRs.

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JENKINS, A. (1997) Teaching More Students: Fieldwork with More Students, Teaching More Students series No. 9 (Oxford, Oxford Centre for Staff Development).

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JOB, D. (1999) New Directions in Geographical Fieldwork (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press).

This book considers what themes are focused on in geography fieldwork and how these investigations may be undertaken, such as methods, planning and approaches and how these findings are used. 'New developments in learning through field experiences are outlined, illustrating the shift from traditional field excursions, through quantitative method, to more recent humanistic approaches. Topics covered range from the importance of social values to opportunities for extending the outcomes of fieldwork into environmental action'.

Keywords: Methods, planning, approaches, quantitative.

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KARABINOS, P., STOLL, H. and FOX, W. (1992) Attracting students to science through field exercises in introductory geology courses, Journal of Geological Education, 40 pp. 302-305.

Advocates the use of field exercises in introductory courses because students more effectively learn and retain key basic principles, but equally significantly because they engender enthusiasm for geology and attract students to geology degrees.

Keywords: Introductory courses, geology.

(Courtesy of Grant & Higgitt, 1997)

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KATZ, C. (1994) Playing the field: questions of fieldwork in geography, Professional Geographer, 46(1) pp.67-72.

Many questions - practical, strategic, political, ethical, personal - are raised by conducting field research. Some of these seem, or are constituted as, separate from the "research itself", yet are integral to it. In this paper I attempt to cut through the breach that divides the doing of fieldwork and the fieldwork itself by addressing what constitutes the "field", what constitutes a field researcher, and what constitutes data under contemporary conditions of globalisation. Drawing on my work in New York City and Sudan, I argue that by interrogating the multiple positionings of intellectuals and the means by which knowledge is produced and exchanged, field researchers and those with whom they work can find common ground to construct a politics of engagement that does not compartmentalise social actors along solitary axes.

Keywords: Ethnography, feminism, methodology, politics of research.

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KEENE, P. (1982) The examination of exposures of Pleistocene sediments in the field: a self-paced exercise, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 6(2) pp. 109-121.

A teaching model is proposed, that can alleviate some of the difficulties experienced by students when introduced to the interpretation of field exposures of Pleistocene deposits. The tightly structured, although self-paced, exercise encourages a logical step-by-step approach which enables the origin and environment of deposition of some seemingly complex exposures to be proposed. Experience with the model. and possible adaptations, are discussed.

Keywords: Group work, student empowerment.

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KEENE, P. (1993) Self-paced Distance Learning Packages for Large Group Fieldwork, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 17(2), p.159

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KENT, M., GILBERTSON, D.O. and HUNT, C.O. (1997) Fieldwork in geography teaching: a critical review of the literature and approaches, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 21(3) pp. 313-332.

Virtually all lecturers in geography recognise the importance of fieldwork as a vital mode of teaching in the subject. This paper draws on material produced as part of a HEFCE review of teaching and learning in the field and assesses the implications of recent changes in higher education for field studies in geography. The literature on the development of and recent changes in, fieldwork practice is reviewed and assumptions about appropriate forms of teaching and assessment are challenged. The need for carefully integrated preparation of project-orientated fieldwork is stressed and the importance of debriefing and feedback after field visits is emphasised. Various suggestions for guidelines on good practice are presented. Finally, a range of future issues and problems in fieldwork is identified and discussed.

Keywords: Literature review, teaching, assessment, good practice.

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KEMPA, R. F. and ORION, N. (1996) Students' perception of co-operative learning in earth science fieldwork, Research in Science and Technological Education, 14(1) pp. 33-41.

Investigates students' perceptions of selected aspects concerning the organisation of and learning from fieldwork. Findings indicate that students either seek partners whom they regard as capable of making positive contributions to the fulfilment of learning tasks, or they opt for friendship groups and a large minority of students regard themselves as contributors rather then beneficiaries from group work.

Keywords: Perceptions, learning, group work.

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KERN, E. L. and CARPENTER, J. R. (1986) Effect of field activities on student learning, Journal of Geological Education, 34(3) 180-183.

Two courses are compared and evaluated, one taught primarily in the field and one primarily in the laboratory. Student achievement of lower level learning objectives is similar in both courses, but the field-based course is significantly more effective for delivering higher level learning objectives. The authors suggest this is because of increased student participation and because they are encouraged to view the environment holistically.

(Courtesy of Grant & Higgitt, 1997)

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KNEALE, P. (1996) Organising student-centred group fieldwork and presentations, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 20(1) pp. 65-74.

A six-week lecture and practical module gives second-year students the opportunity for an integrated team project involving fieldwork, laboratory analysis, data analysis, group report writing, poster production and presentations. In preparation for their dissertations, as much decision making as possible is left with the students. Enthusiasm and effective group interaction are encouraged through two workshops explicitly directed to transferable skills, good practice in poster design and team roles and behaviour.

Keywords: Group work, student empowerment.

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KOBAYASHI, A.. (1994) Coloring the field: gender, "race" and the politics of fieldwork, Professional Geographer, 46, pp.73-80.

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LAI, K. (1996) Understanding Student Teachers' Experiences of Geographical Fieldwork, Proceedings of the 28th International Geographical Congress Commission on Geographical Education, The Hague, 4-10 August 1996, pp.136-140.

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LENON, B. J. and CLEVES, P. G. (1983) Techniques and Fieldwork in Geography (Slough, University Tutorial Press Ltd.).

This text is aimed at Sixth Form and first year university students, looking at a range of field techniques of data measurement and analysis in both physical and human geography. Several examples of fieldwork projects are given

Keywords: Geography, field techniques, projects.

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LEWIS, S. and MILLS, C. (1995) Field notebooks: a student's guide, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 19(1) pp. 111-115.

This brief guide shows you how to keep an effective record of fieldwork in a field notebook. Clearly, the exact format and layout of a field notebook will reflect the type of project being undertaken, the time available and even the weather! However, these general guidelines provide a check-list of the basic format and identify the main things that should go into the notebook as you undertake work in the field.

Keywords: Notebook, observations.

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LIGHT, D. and PHINNEMORE, D. (1998) Teaching 'transition' in Central and Eastern Europe through fieldwork, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 22(2) pp. 185-199.

Since 1989 the former communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe have been in a state of transition to a market economy and pluralist democracy. However despite the increasing academic interest in the region teaching about transition to undergraduates is a subject which has received little attention. This paper identifies some of the particular challenges and problems of teaching about transition in post-communist countries particularly the lack of awareness of the region's communist past among many students. It also reports the development of a module designed to teach about transition in Romania primarily through fieldwork. The content of the module and examples of teaching activities are presented.

Keywords: Central and Eastern Europe, transition, Romania.

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LIVINGSTONE, I. (1999) Role-playing planning public inquiries, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 23(1) pp. 63-76.

In the UK and elsewhere, planning public inquiries are held to allow public debate when there is concern over a land development decision. Using the format of the inquiry provides geography students, usually working in teams, with the opportunity to investigate an environmental issue from a particular point of view and then to present their case as an oral presentation and a written report. Students have to take responsibility for managing the project, collecting supporting information and preparing their presentation. The format therefore allows the delivery of part of a geography curriculum as well as the development of key skills in a non-didactic setting. Experience shows that students greatly enjoy working within this non-standard format, and are highly motivated to produce good performances at the 'inquiry'.

Keywords: Public inquiry, role play, group work, key skills.

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LIVINGSTONE, I., MATTHEWS, H. and CASTLEY, A. (1998) Fieldwork and Dissertations in Geography. (Cheltenham, Geography Discipline Network, Cheltenham and Gloucester College of Higher Education).

This guide is in two units: one deals with fieldwork and the other with dissertations. These units stand apart from each other and can be treated as separate Guides. However, booth fieldwork and dissertations have often been viewed as central elements of geography degree courses in the UK, and both have been the subject of considerable scrutiny and reappraisal in the recent past. The purpose of this Guide is to question and explore the nature, purpose and relevance of fieldwork and dissertations as components of a geography degree. In both cases there is no model or perspective practice. Indeed, the evidence of the Teaching Quality Assessment (TQA) is that diversity and variety are features of the way in which the geography curricula are presented within UK higher education institutions. This is not to say that all fieldwork and all dissertation work is implicitly 'good'. There is a danger that because both are traditional features of most degree programmes they become elements which are taken for granted and in so doing, encourage uncritical thought. Some of the issues we will focus on are introduced with the aim of getting geography providers to think about why, how and when fieldwork and dissertations should be undertaken, if at all. Given the changing nature of higher education, especially in relation to higher student:staff ratios, and the growing clamour that curricula should be more keenly honed on the skills required by employers, it seems apposite to reflect about the delivery and form of these components. Because of these sentiments, this Guide is designed to enable the sharing of current good practice. All the examples have been taken from existing curricula and we have relied on case studies which demonstrate that there are many ways of achieving common goals. What we would like to think is that after having read this Guide you will be better-placed to compare how your course relates to what is going on elsewhere and, if you are tempted to change some of what you are doing, it is because the Guide has made you think about some aspect of your course in a slightly different way.

Keywords: Dissertations, curriculum components, changing nature of higher education, case studies.

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LONERGAN, N. and ANDRESEN, L.W. (1988) Field-based education: some theoretical considerations, Higher Education Research and Development, 7, pp. 63-77.

Within a broad notion of "the field", teachers using field-based methods work towards many different educational aims, some implicit and other explicit. Particular aims are examined, and some types of field activity are seen to be better for achieving certain aims than others. Types of field excursion are classified and some special learning benefits of working in the field are suggested. Field teachers should set clear learning objectives and carefully plan and select the experiences they intend students to have, taking into account educational aims, time available, distance, student readiness, and availability of localities and resources. Thorough briefing and debriefing are important in maximising field learning.

Keywords: Educational aims, types of fieldwork, objectives.

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LOUNSBURY, J. F. and ALDRICH, F. T. (1986) Introduction to Geographic Field Methods and Techniques, Second Edition (London, Charles E. Merrill Publishing Co.).

This well illustrated book looks at a variety of approaches, methods and techniques in acquiring data from field observations. It is written with students and researches in mind who have little or no knowledge and experience of data collection in the field. It provides the philosophy, conceptual structure and theory for a range of field techniques and discusses the use of field equipment and questionnaires through to the design of a field research project. Several examples of field exercises are given.

Keywords: Field data, collection of data, field exercises.

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MADGE, C. (1994) 'Gendering space': a first year geography fieldwork exercise, Geography, 79, pp.330-338.

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MAGUIRE, S. (1998) Gender differences in attitudes to under-graduate fieldwork, Area, 30(3), pp. 207-214.

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MAGUIRE, S. (1998) Group projects and effective fieldwork teaching, Earth Sciences Teachers Association Occasional Series, No. 2, ISBN: 0 85432 669 3, pp. 39-42.

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MAGUIRE, S. and EDMONDSON, S. (2001) Student evaluation and assessment of group projects, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 25(2), (forthcoming July 2001).

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MAIZELS, J.K., HODGE, M., KELLY, N., MILTON, I.H., MURRAY, G., ROBERTSON, I. and SMART, D. (1984) A teacher/student commentary on a field test of Manning's Roughness Coefficient, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 8(2) pp. 137-150.

This paper describes and appraises a two-day field project designed by a member of staff to be carried out by a group of students in a series of stream sections. The main aims of the project were (1) to help students develop a better understanding of stream-processes, but more importantly (2) to help students develop an awareness of how ideas evolve, (3) how to test their ideas using a sound procedural methodology and (4) how to assess the implications of their results. The paper outlines how the project developed in collaboration with six students, examines the varying contributions made by staff and students at each stage and discusses the problems that arose during its execution. The project itself involved determining the most accurate method of predicting mean flow velocity in a stream using three different methods of estimating Manning's roughness coefficient.

Keywords: Project work, Manning's Roughness Coefficient.

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MANNER, B. (1995) Field studies benefit students and teachers, Journal of Geological Education, 43(2) pp. 128-131.

Some of the benefits of field education are outlined. Students display attitudinal gains, in enthusiasm, appreciation for nature and increased scientific curiosity. Cognitive gains are realised through improved intellectual performance and greater retention of knowledge. Students also benefit from co-operative learning and improved social relations.

(Courtesy of Grant & Higgitt, 1997)

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MAY, J. (1999) Developing fieldwork in social and cultural geography: illustrations from a residential field class in Los Angeles and Las Vegas, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 23(2) pp. 207-225.

A recent critique of the politics of fieldwork has raised questions concerning traditional approaches to fieldwork and the value of field-based learning to a more radical social and cultural geography. At the same time, a review of the literature on undergraduate fieldwork reveals few examples of innovations in fieldwork practice by those teaching in this area of the discipline. Here, it is argued that fieldwork in fact continues to represent one of the most appropriate forms by which student understanding of a number of the key concerns of social and cultural geography may be developed but that this development is best encouraged by working with a new approach to fieldwork emerging not out of the educational literature but the literature on fieldwork in the research process. The argument is illustrated by means of an account of a specialist residential field class for social and cultural geography undergraduates to Los Angeles and Las Vegas.

Keywords: Social geography, cultural geography, Los Angeles, Las Vegas.

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McEWEN, L. (1996) Fieldwork in the undergraduate geography programme: challenge and changes, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 20(3) pp. 379-384.

The paper provides a critical commentary on issues facing fieldwork in undergraduate geography programmes in the 1990s, with particular reference to the UK but with many principles applicable to other areas of fieldwork provision, for example in North America and Europe. Issues are structured around five key themes: aims and objectives, skill acquisition, relationship to other areas of curricula, fieldwork delivery and fieldwork management. Through discussion of key points, the paper introduces the five contributions within the symposium collection, which provide new perspectives on fieldwork planning, delivery and management and encourage different ways of approaching fieldwork activities.

Keywords: Skills, delivery, management.

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McEWEN, L. and HARRIS, F. (1996) The undergraduate geography fieldweek: challenges and changes, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 20(3) pp.411-421.

In the l990s, undergraduate geography programmes have come under pressure to change from both internal and external forces. In part, this relates to the process of restructuring associated with the increasing trend towards modular undergraduate courses in higher education institutions in the United Kingdom. There has also been a growing emphasis on incorporating training into undergraduate degree programmes, particularly to encourage the development of transferable skills which enhance graduate employability. This paper looks at how the traditional undergraduate geography fieldweek lends itself to being reshaped and reorganised to meet the challenges of these changes. Issues are illustrated with reference to a well-established, second-year fieldweek to Belgium and The Netherlands.

Keywords: Transferable skills, fieldweek, restructuring.

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McCLAY, K. (1987) The Mapping Of Geological Structures (Chichester, John Wiley & Sons Ltd.).

This is a small, basic guide to field mapping and interpretations of geological structures. It shows how to identify structures, record structural data and understand their development. It describes the field techniques for mapping geological structures and helps you to identify and map particular types of structure. A brief summary of the interpretation and analysis of the structures is given.

Keywords: Geological structures, field techniques, mapping, data recording, analysis.

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MELLOR, A. (1991) Experiential learning through integrated project work: an example from soil science, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 15(2) pp. 135-149.

The planning, implementation and evaluation of an integrated soil science project are examined. The project aimed to develop a wide range of student-centred approaches to learning, whilst promoting the development of a variety of transferable skills and personal qualities. The four project components (fieldwork, laboratory analysis, data interpretation and preparation of a written report) ran in sequence. Only the written report was formally assessed although potential developments of this system were considered. The project was implemented in the light of Kolb's cyclical model of experiential learning, and student evaluation was achieved through questionnaire analysis and group discussion.

Keywords: Teaching, curriculum design, student-centred learning, Kolb, experiential learning.

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MILLWARD, G. (1992) Independent group fieldwork in oceanography, In G. Gibbs (Ed.) Improving the Quality of Student Learning (Bristol, Technical Education Services Ltd.) pp. 100-113.

An oceanography course is redesigned to promote deep learning by making it student-centred, promoting interaction and providing a good motivational context. Students undertake projects on 'real world' issues in oceanography such as an environmental assessment of the possible impacts of power station outfall on an estuary.

(Courtesy of Grant & Higgitt, 1997)

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MILSOM, J. (1989) Field Geophysics (Chichester, John Wiley & Sons).

This compact book is designed for use and help in the field where small geophysical surveys are being conducted. Topic areas include: gravity method; magnetic method; radioactivity surveys; electric current methods; direct-current methods; induced polarisation; electro magnetic methods, VLF methods; seismic methods, seismic reflection and seismic refraction.

Keywords: Geophysics, field handbook.

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MOLES, R. (1977) Biogeographical field study of farmland, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 1(2) pp. 20-26.

Ecological biogeography, defined here as the ecological study of man-managed communities, is essentially experimental: practical work therefore should play an important role in teaching this specialism. In Britain, lowland agricultural land has attracted little ecological investigation but falls within the scope of geography; characteristics of the farmland habitat combine to make it especially suitable for biogeographical field study. Field work, varying in form from day visits to projects spanning several years, may illustrate many biogeographical concepts introduced in lectures.

Keywords: Ecological biogeography, practical, agricultural land.

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MOORE, K. (1999) Notes from a virtual field course, GeoCal, 20, pp.11-12.

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MORPHET, C. and PECK, F. (1994) In search of the differential shift: Integrating fieldwork into the taught programme in industrial geography, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 18(2) pp. 229-235.

How fieldwork has been successfully incorporated into a programme of industrial geography at the University of Northumbria at Newcastle is demonstrated. The theme of shift-share analysis has been used to integrate the lecture programme, seminar work, field study and an assignment. The work has proved challenging to the students and some of the resulting written work has been of high quality. The fieldwork was identified by the students as a particularly successful component of the course in a subsequent course review.

Keywords: Industrial geography, teaching, shift-share analysis.

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MOSLEY, F. (1981) Methods in Field Geology (Oxford, W. H. Freeman & Co.).

This book is split into three parts. Part one reviews survey methods such as aerial photos in the field and gives a range of climates and terrain for comparison, it gives the details of field maps and hopes the reader will appreciate the different techniques needed for different types of rocks and structures. Parts two and three offer case studies to illustrate the information presented in part one.

Keywords: Geology, photographs, survey methods.

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MOSSA, J. (1995) Participatory student field guides and excursions, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 19(1) pp. 83-90.

This paper discusses the motivation, implementation and impressions of involving students in written and oral field guide contributions in two geography classes. This approach is especially useful in situations where the instructor is knowledgeable about the area but not an authority, such as in the case of a recent appointment. Various aspects of the experience, including the superior quality of participatory field guides and excursions as compared with an exclusively instructor-generated product, prove beneficial for those involved and for outside parties. Students also learn more from participating, obtain written and oral communication opportunities, and acquire self-esteem through contributing.

Keywords: Participatory learning, field guides, geography.

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NAIRN, K. (1996) Parties on geography fieldtrips: embodied fieldwork? NZ Women's Studies Journal, 12(2), Special Issue: Educating Sexuality, pp. 86-97.

In this paper I argue that we never stop learning about being geographers on residential geography fieldtrips. Even when the 'official' fieldwork stops and 'the party' begins, embodied fieldwork continues. I consider individual participant's experiences of fieldtrip parties as particularly intense forms of embodied fieldwork whereby these individuals learn about who counts as a 'real geographer' and who does not. It is clear that heterosexual performances are welcome at 'the party' but other sexualities are erased.

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NAIRN, K. (1998) Geography fieldtrip bodies: re-presenting students' drawings, in Bliss, E. (Ed) Islands, Economy, Society and Environment, Conference Proceedings Second Joint Conference, Institute of Australian Geographers and New Zealand Geographical Society (Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, University of Tasmania).

Approximately 200 geography students in Aotearoa/New Zealand were asked to draw what they expect to do on a geography fieldtrip before they went on a fieldtrip. I will present what students portrayed in their drawings, and in turn, I will re-present what might constitute and define geography fieldtrip bodies. A discussion of the methodological challenges and implications of re-presenting drawings will be interwoven with the findings.

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NAIRN, K. (1998) The 'real' world of geography fieldtrips, Proceedings of the Inaugural New Zealand Geographical Education Conference, Hamilton, New Zealand: University of Waikato, pp. 113-115.

The focus of this paper is geography students' drawings of what they expect to do on geography fieldtrips. I discuss two trends evident in the drawings: the expectations of a so-called 'natural landscape' as the usual fieldtrip context and the personification of nature. The implications of these trends for geographic education are then considered.

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NAIRN, K. (1998) Geography fieldtrips: what a difference a place makes, Proceedings of the New Zealand Geographical Society Anniversary Conference, Hamilton, New Zealand: University of Waikato, pp. 190-193.

In this paper the theme of what a difference a place makes is explored. I argue that the greater the difference between the places visited on geography fieldtrips and the places where geography students live and attend their place of education, the more likely the geography fieldtrip will be significant in participants' memories. I argue that this difference has been utilised to facilitate the teaching and learning of geography in a way that has been unquestioned and unexamined. This paper is one contribution to the questioning process, to the consideration of the otherness of place and the place of otherness in geography fieldtrip education.

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NAIRN, K. (1999) Embodied fieldwork, Journal of Geography, 98(6), pp.272-282.

The residential geography fieldtrip is a key context in which geography student learn how to act and think like geography students/geographers. This learning to act like and think like a geography student/geographer is what I refer to as embodied fieldwork. In this article, I examine one particular aspect of embodied fieldwork: the walking and climbing necessary on two physical geography fieldtrips. The assumption that all geography students (and staff) are able-bodied is one of the many messages conveyed by the selection of rugged outdoor environments for fieldwork. This able-bodied discourse is examined via the axes of physical ability, gender, and age.

Keywords: Field trip, physical ability, gender, age, embodied fieldwork.

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NAIRN, K., HIGGITT, D. and VANNESTE, D. (2000) International perspectives on fieldcourses, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 24(2), pp. 246-254.

Fieldwork is a distinctive feature of geography in higher education and is therefore a subject that is likely to be scrutinised by an emerging international network. Originating from an Internet discussion, the paper considers the context of internationalism for the enhancement of fieldwork practices. These broadly comprise opportunities to debate and discuss pedagogic issues about fieldwork in an international forum and to facilitate more effective international fieldwork opportunities and exchange. In examining specific issues affecting internationalisation, attention is drawn to the frequently implicit assumptions about the value of fieldwork and the need to foster research on the delivery of fieldwork objectives.

Keywords: Fieldwork, internationalisation, co-operation.

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NAST, H. (1994) Women in the field: critical feminist methodologies and theoretical perspectives, Professional Geographer, 46, pp.54-66.

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NOWICKI, M. (1999) Developing key skills through geography fieldwork, Teaching Geography, 24(3) pp. 116-121.

Fieldwork is an important and enjoyable part of geography courses. It may be the main aspect why some student choose the subject. It can also be one of the most satisfying aspect of a geography teacher's job. The frustrations of organising and financing visits are usually outweighed by the benefits of experiential learning in and out-of-school setting. Unfortunately, some geography departments often have to justify fieldwork provision to those colleagues who prefer students on site studying for examinations, this is despite well thought out fieldwork programmes and its compulsory nature in geography syllabuses. Incorporating Key Skills into geography fieldwork may help to raise its profile and establish its importance in the wider curriculum. The purpose of this article is to examine the role of geography fieldwork in delivering Key Skills to the 14-19 age range and to show how fieldwork programmes can be adapted to provide Key Skills assessment opportunities.

Keywords: Geography-education, teaching.

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NUNDY, S.J. (1999) The Fieldwork Effect: the role and impact of fieldwork in the upper primary school, International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education, 8(2), pp.190-198.

Concentrating upon students in the upper primary range (ages nine to eleven), this paper suggests that residential fieldwork is capable not only of generating positive cognitive and affective learning amongst students, but that this may be enhanced significantly compared to that achievable within a classroom environment. Fundamental to this is an identified relationship between the principal learning domains. The paper also contemplates the possibility that the approach and structure employed in effective fieldwork may have a wider educational application in the context of 'raising attainment' amongst school students.

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ORION, N. and HOFSTEIN, A. (1994) Factors that influence learning during a scientific field trip in a natural environment, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 31(10) pp. 1097-1119.

This study deals with the educational effectiveness of field trips. The main purpose was to obtain insight concerning factors that might influence the ability of students to learn during a scientific field trip in a natural environment. The research was conducted in the context of a 1-day geologic field trip by 296 students in Grades 9 through 11 in high schools in Israel. The study combined qualitative and quantitative research methods. Data were collected from three different sources (student, teacher, and outside observer) in three stages (before, after, and during the field trip). Using observations and questionnaires we investigated: a) the nature of student learning during the field trip, b) student attitudes toward the field trip, and c) changes in student knowledge and attitudes after the field trip. Our findings suggest that the educational effectiveness of a field trip is controlled by two major factors; the field trip quality and the "Novelty space" (or Familiarity Index). The educational quality of a field trip is determined by its structure, learning materials, and teaching method, and the ability to direct learning to a concrete interaction with the environment. The novelty space consists of three prefield variables: cognitive, psychological, and geographic. The learning performance of students whose "Novelty Space" was reduced before the field trip was significantly higher than that of students whose "Novelty Space" had not been so reduced. Thus, the former group gained significantly higher achievement and attitude levels. It is suggested that a field trip should occur early in the concrete part of the curriculum, and should be preceded by a relatively short preparatory unit that focuses on increasing familiarity with the learning setting of the field trip, thereby limiting the "Novelty Space" factors.

Keywords: Educational effectiveness, geology, observation, questionnaire, student attitudes, "Novelty Space", preparation.

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OWEN, G. (1990) Fieldwork practicals: an example from sedimentology, Teaching Earth Sciences, 3 pp. 64-67.

A list of 9 areas of fieldwork aims is given: observation skills; measurement of data; recording data; data analysis; hypothesis testing; data presentation; data interpretation; critical analysis and specialised skills. Four types of sedimentology field practicals are described which develop these skills.

(Courtesy of Grant & Higgitt, 1997)

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PANTON, K. and DILSAVER, L. (1989) Americans in Britain: geographic education and foreign field trips, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 13(1) pp. 45-53.

Although geography does not have a strong base in American universities, large numbers of US students undertake short courses in the United Kingdom every year. The paper considers the problems involved in designing field trips for these students. It reports on the experience of a two-week trip with undergraduates from the University of Southern Mississippi and suggests that the educational success of such ventures depends on a combination of clear course structure, student motivation and the imagination of the teacher.

Keywords: Teaching, curriculum design.

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PARKINSON, R. and REID, I. (1987) A physical model for shallow groundwater studies and the simulation of land drain performance, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 11(2) pp. 125-132.

Pipe drains are installed in farmland throughout the world in order to remove excess water from the soil and promote better growing conditions. Such a widespread modification of nature has inevitable consequences for the hydrological balance and flood response of river catchments. However, the processes associated with agricultural drains and with shallow groundwater are difficult to conceptualise in the classroom. As a result, the 'hydrology' of geography curricula is more often than not 'surface hydrology', with groundwater frequently given no more than cursory treatment. Teaching aids are obviously required. In this paper we describe a two dimensional sand-tank model that illustrates the influence of ground slope on tile drain discharge and the movement of groundwater in general. Using a range of simulated rainfall intensities, a class can be shown that the position of the phreatic divide between two adjacent drains moves upslope in simple linear response to increasing ground-slope. The patterns of water movement may be illustrated by dye-tracing. Since the position of the phreatic divide dictates the size of the drain catchment, it can also be demonstrated that flow towards an upslope drain varies inversely with ground-slope. The model can be constructed with ease. Not only can it be used to demonstrate the effect of topography on sub-surface water movement in agricultural catchments, but it can also be used to illustrate general groundwater recharge processes. As such it is a useful hydrological teaching aid.

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PETERSEN, J. F. (1984) Preparing environmental interpretive literature: a strategy for undergraduate field teaching, Journal of Geography, 83 pp. 73-78.

An observation-oriented physical geography field course is focused around student production of an environmental interpretation brochure. The production of high quality published materials for a general public audience provides students with a rare opportunity to take course work to a professional standard and to communicate their work to the general public.

(Courtesy of Grant & Higgitt, 1997)

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PHIPPS, L. and STAINFIELD, J.D. (1998) Heightening the experience: using the Internet to 'virtually enhance' fieldwork, GeoCal, 19, pp.14-16.

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PHIPPS, L. and STAINFIELD, J.D. (1999) Beyond the Maltese Website: lessons learned and new 'Web' horizons, GeoCal, 20, pp.9-11.

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PRENTICE, R. (1991) Measuring the educational effectiveness of on-site interpretation designed for tourists: an assessment of student recall from geographical field visits to Kidwelly Castle, Dyfed, Area, 23(4) pp. 297-308.

In this paper questions about the effectiveness both of higher educational fieldwork in geography and of on-site 'interpretation' for higher educational fieldwork in geography are investigated by reference to a case study at Kidwelly Castle, a tourist attraction in West Wales. Such resources are frequently provided by 'heritage' site operators but their potential and effectiveness as higher educational resources has gone unappraised. The present paper reports the recall by students of factual information after a field visit. The determinants of recall are also reported, using proxy measures of interest in the subject of the visit, interest in tourism studies, behaviour on-site and direct teaching input.

Keywords: Educational effectiveness, student factual recall.

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ROGERS, A., VILES, H. and GOUDIE, A. (1992) The Student's Companion to Geography (Oxford, Blackwell).

In part III there are essays 'that can be read as guides on how to get started on geographical research using a particular skill and what pitfalls await the budding researcher'. Topic areas include statistics; computers; remote sensing; cartography; GIS; lab work; physical geography fieldwork; questionnaire surveys; interviews; landscape studies and archives.

Keywords: Research, field techniques.

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RUNDSTROM, R. A. and KENZER, M. S. (1989) The decline of fieldwork in human geography, Professional Geographer, 41(3) pp. 294-303.

Fieldwork has been an important component of human geography. A multi-decade analysis of articles in three major journals shows that human geographers since the mid-1970s have produced less fieldwork-based research than ever before in this century. The impetus for this unprecedented decline and other similar disciplinary trends are traced to several causes: demographic change, technological change, institutional pressures, and the resurgence of applied geography. Such fundamental change places disturbing questions before geographers.

Keywords: Human geography, history of geography, applied geography.

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SHAKESBY, R. A. and STEPHENS, N. (1982) An introduction to the interpretation of Pleistocene sedimentary sequences: a short programme of laboratory practical work, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 6(1) pp. 29-38.

Students at the early stages of a degree course lack sufficient fieldwork time for the effective investigation of Pleistocene phenomena. In response to this problem, a short programme of laboratory practical work has been developed which introduces some of the techniques that might be applied, and geomorphological inferences that might be drawn, from analyses of exposures in Pleistocene sediments. Two 'desk' exercises are presented in detail, following a description of how these and other tasks fit into the overall programme.

Keywords: Pleistocene sediments, laboratory practical work.

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SLATER, T.R. (1993) Locality-based studies and the Enterprise Initiative, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 17(1), pp.47-55.

Describes an introductory module for first-year students which includes lectures and self-guided trails covering human geography and planning issues in the area around the university campus (Birmingham).

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SMITH, G. (1995) Using field and laboratory exercises on local water bodies to teach fundamental concepts in an introductory oceanography course, Journal of Geological Education, 43(5) pp. 480-484.

An introductory oceanography course centres around investigate, research-based field exercises. This has the advantage that it allows students to 'learn by doing', involves them with problem-solving and allows them to consider data they have collected themselves. This not only improves their subsequent performance and retention, but attracts students to science, particularly women and minority groups.

(Courtesy of Grant & Higgitt, 1997)

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STANESCO, J. D. (1991) The personal journal as learning and evaluation tool in geology field trip courses, Journal of Geological Education, 39(3) pp. 204-205.

The role of learning logs as an assessment, evaluation and record of achievement instrument is described. The learning log is similar to a field notebook, but involves the students reflecting on what they have learnt during fieldwork and linking material to other areas of the course or fieldwork.

(Courtesy of Grant & Higgitt, 1997)

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STAINFIELD, J. et al. Environmental Themes in the Mediterranean: A Case Study of the Maltese Islands, (accessed 18 December 2000).

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STAINFIELD, J., FISHER, P., FORD, B. and SOLEM, M. (2000) International virtual field trips: a new direction? Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 24(2), pp. 255-262.

Virtual Field Trips (VFTs) have a valuable role in supporting and enhancing real fieldwork and empowering students who are disadvantaged financially or physically. The development of good VFT and VFT tools is still in its infancy and full 'virtuality' is still many years away. This article traces the evolution of virtual field trips, outlining their advantages and disadvantages and provides a brief overview of the materials and approaches currently becoming available.

Keywords: Virtual Field Trips, Virtual Field Course, ICT, international.

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STEVENSON, C. (1994) A geological 'aide-memoire' for field use, Teaching Earth Sciences, 19(2) pp. 65-67.

To counter the problem of students forgetting certain key elements in effective geological mapping, an 'aide memoire' is produced to remind students of all the elements they should include in their field notes and observational work.

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STODDARD, R.H. (1982) Field Techniques and Research Methods in Geography (Fairfax: TechBooks)

Written for upper year undergraduates and beginning graduate students, primarily in USA universities, the contents include: collecting areal data; preparing for data collection; measuring field phenomena; sampling geographic phenomena; collecting data by observing; collecting data by asking questions; using stored data; measuring movement; developing a research plan. Available from Ceramic Book & Literature Service (CBLS).

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TERNAN, J.L., CHALKLEY, B.S. and ELMES, A. (1999) Long haul field courses: lessons from the Plymouth experience, Working paper No.4, SEED Publications, University of Plymouth.

TERNAN, J.L., CHALKLEY, B.S. and ELMES, A. (1999) The Large Residential Field Course: Management, Educational & Student Perspectives, Working paper No.5, SEED Publications, University of Plymouth.

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TINSLEY, H. M. (1996) Training undergraduates for self-directed field research projects in physical geography: problems and possible solutions, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 20(1) pp. 55-64.

Self-directed research projects involving fieldwork are highly valued as part of physical geography Honours degrees as they are intellectually challenging, highly motivating, promote increased self-confidence and provide a vehicle for the demonstration of a wide range of skills. Such projects present increasing problems of implementation. The recent rise in student numbers has resulted in less time being available for supervision, less space in laboratories and more pressure on laboratory consumables. The declining value of student grants and family commitments of mature students may make field seasons away from home unrealistic. Sine the adoption of semesterisation there may be particular problems in introducing the research potential of subjects taught in the second semester in time for project selection deadlines. Health and Safety regulations now demand that risk assessments be made for all self-directed research projects and this has generated a need for training in hazard identification procedures. Solutions to these problems are suggested and an example of a second-year module in Soil and Vegetation Systems, designed to address some of these issues, is presented. Its success in training students for self-directed research projects is evaluated.

Keywords: Skills training, research project, dissertation, physical geography, student numbers, local fieldwork.

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THOMPSON, D. B. (1982) On discerning the purposes of geological fieldwork, Geology Teaching, 7(2) pp. 59-65.

The philosophy of fieldwork and its relevance in relation to general and science education is discussed in order to develop a statement on the purposes of fieldwork. The comments of a variety of academic authors, examination boards and institutions are taken into account. A list of objectives broken down into intellectual skills, practical skills, practical techniques and interests and attitudes is then formulated.

(Courtesy of Grant & Higgitt, 1997)

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THORPE, R. and BROWN, G. (1985) The Field Description of Igneous Rock (Milton Keynes, Open University Press).

This compact book is designed for use and help in the field where the identification of igneous rocks is required. Topics covered include: field techniques; description of igneous rock outcrops; hand specimens and their interpretation; mode of occurrence of igneous bodies; volcanic rocks; minor intrusions; plutonic rocks I - the calc-alkaline association; plutonic rocks II - the alkaline association; plutonic rocks III; plutonic rocks IV and metamorphism.

Keywords: Igneous rocks, field handbook.

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TRAVIS, J. W. (1990) Geology and the visually impaired student, Journal of Geological Education, 38(1) pp. 41-49.

Classroom techniques and laboratory exercises have been developed for the benefit of visually impaired students enrolled in an introductory geology course. The students attend lecture sessions with other students enrolled in the course, participate in all field trips and, with the exception of one modification, attempt the same laboratory exercises. Upon completing the course, these students (1) feel they have been totally involved in the class, (2) have been introduced to a number of instruments available to the visually impaired for making various types of measurements/observations and (3) have been introduced to the scientific method as well as some of the concepts of geology.

The following laboratory exercises have been developed: (1) doing library research; (2) graphing geologic data; (3) identifying minerals, rocks, and fossils; (4) measuring attributes of the earth and earth materials; (5) solving geologic structural and plate tectonic problems; (6) reading maps and recognising landscapes, and (7) taking field trips. The laboratory exercises primarily involve recognising textural differences using measuring devices.

Keywords: Apparatus, earth science teaching - non-traditional clientele, education, geology - introductory course, visually impaired student.

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VAN TROMMEL, J. (Ed.) (1990) Proceedings of the International Symposium on Fieldwork in the Sciences (Westerbork, The Netherlands, April 22-27).

Thirty papers from the International Symposium on Fieldwork in the Sciences (ISFIS) are presented. The program was divided into four blocks: (1) trends in fieldwork and curriculum aspects; (2) fieldwork activities, followed by discussion and reflection; (3) implementation and dissemination; and (4) field excursions to typical Dutch landscapes. Topics include world trends, curriculum development, international approaches, interdisciplinary approaches, preschool education, the role of fieldwork in environmental education, nature excursions, computer applications, reference collections, teacher training, project descriptions, implementation of fieldwork, science activities in biology and physics, field studies, and ecosystem change. Also included are an analysis and impression of symposium papers and a review of the workshops held.

Keywords: Trends, curriculum, implementation, excursions.

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WALFORD, R. (1981) Geography games and simulations: learning through experience, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 5(2) pp. 113-119.

Simulation is becoming increasingly popular in teaching in higher education. Dissatisfaction with traditional teaching techniques such as the lecture, the need to understand processes and to teach problem-solving skills are some of the reasons for this. The roots of simulation are in war-gaming, in management and business studies, and in psychologists' approaches to 'experiential learning'. Simulation in geography developed in the late 1960s. The example of the Caribbean Fishing Game is used to demonstrate flexibility of gaming. Three styles of simulation are outlined: role-play, operational games and individual exercises. To be most effective, simulations need to be carefully prepared and properly integrated into the course. Simulation's open-endedness makes evaluation difficult.

Keywords: Traditional teaching methods, simulation, experiential learning.

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WALFORD, N. (1985) Preparing for fieldwork with Census Small Area Statistics, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 9(1), pp. 73-81.

The Small Area Statistics (SAS) are a standard set of census statistics for small areas throughout Great Britain. The SAS are a valuable teaching resource used to prepare college students in an urban geography course for fieldwork is described.

Keywords: Urban geography, statistics, Census data.

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WARBURTON, J. and HIGGITT, M. (1997) Improving the preparation for fieldwork with 'IT': two examples from physical geography, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 21(3) pp. 333-347.

Two potential roles for information technology (IT) to enhance the preparation phase for fieldwork are investigated. In the first initiative, a prototype geographical information system (GIS) is developed to support local fieldwork activity. The second initiative develops computer-based briefing tutorials to prepare students for residential field classes. By enhancing the preparatory phase of fieldwork, students are more quickly acclimatised once they arrive at the field site, they are better able to focus on the key issues, and valuable time in the field can be utilised more effectively.

Keywords: IT, preparation, CAL, GIS, physical geography.

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WILLIAMS, C., GRIFFITHS, J. and CHALKLEY, B. (1999) Fieldwork in The Sciences (Plymouth, University of Plymouth, Science Education Enhancement and Development Publication).

This volume aims to disseminate ideas on effective field teaching to look at what future fieldwork holds and to consider the present circumstances in higher education and the resulting changes that may occur for fieldwork. There are four main parts that cover the definition of fieldwork and its purpose, the design and conduct of fieldwork, the future for fieldwork and ideas on how field teaching may need to change, and a set of case studies.

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